MACHINE DESIGN[ENTIRELY IN SI UNITS]Dr. N. C. Pandya, Dr. C. S. ShahEdition : 20th Edition : 2015 ISBN : 9789385039102 Size : 135 mm × 210 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 1064 + 16 = 1080`325.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis text-book aims at presenting the fundamental principles of Mechanical Engineering Design. The fundamentals of theory and design are presented as lucidly as possible to enable the students in engineering institutions to get a clear grasp of the basic principles of the subject. It explains the general theory of mechanical engineering design and sets out problems for the students aimed at equipping them for design of machine parts with intelligence and understanding. Throughout this book the chief aim has been to illustrate the subject matter fully with suitable diagrams and by direct treatment of the subject matter. The book contains numerous examples carefully chosen from past examination papers of various Indian Universities. The book is intended for Mechanical Engineering students preparing for degree examinations in engineering of almost all the Indian Universities, diploma examinations of various technical boards, certificate courses, examinations of A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional Examinations. It should also prove of interest and of practical value to practising engineers.CONTENT1 : MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND THEIR PROPERTIES 2 : DESIGN Considerations IN MACHINE PARTS 3 : CYLINDERS, TANKS AND PIPES 4 : RIVETED JOINTS 5 : BOLTS, NUTS AND SCREWS 6 : COTTER AND KNUCKLE JOINTS 7 : SHAFTS, KEYS AND COUPLINGS 8 : SPRINGS 9 : BEARINGS 10 : STRUTS AND COLUMNS 11 : POWER SCREWS 12 : LEVERS 13 : BRACKETS 14 : BELTS, PULLEYS AND CHAIN DRIVES 15 : FLYWHEELS 16 : GEARS 17 : WELDED CONNECTIONS 18 : DESIGN OF MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE PARTS – I : ENGINES AND BOILERS 19 : DESIGN OF MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE PARTS – II : BRAKES AND CLUTCHES 20 : DESIGN PROJECTS Appendix : I to APPENDIX : XVII INDEXChapter 1 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND THEIR PROPERTIES 1-1. Introduction 1-2. Choice of material 1-3. Materials of construction 1-4. Structure of materials 1-5. Mechanical properties of materials of construction 1-6. Determination of mechanical properties 1-7. Fabrication characteristics and processes of fabrication 1-8. Ferrous metals — Cast iron, wrought iron and steel 1-9. Non-ferrous metals and alloys 1-10. Available sizes 1-11. Accuracy 1-12 Finishing processes 1-13. Non-metallic materials 1-14. Plastics 1-15. Composite materials 1-16. Improvements in properties of materials Examples I Chapter 2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN MACHINE PARTS 2-1. Loads 2-2. Stress 2-3. Strain 2-4. Stress-Strain diagram — Modulus of elasticity 2-5. Poisson’s ratio 2-6. Modulus of rigidity 2-7. Bulk modulus 2-8. Basic requirements of machine elements 2-9. Factor of safety: Selection of allowable stresses 2-10. Procedure for designing a machine element 2-11. Tensile stress 2-12. Compressive stress 2-13. Shearing stress 2-14. Bearing pressure intensity 2-15. Bending (Flexure) 2-6. Shear stresses in a beam 2-17. Torsion 2-18. Eccentric loading 2-19. Combined stresses: Bending combined with direct load 2-20. Offset connecting links and C shaped frames 2-21. Shear stresses combined with tensile and compressive stresses 2-22. Theories of elastic failure 2-23. Designing for impact loads 2-24. Design of members subjected to impact torsion 2-25. Stress concentration 2-26. Notch sensitivity 2-27. Effect of repeated application of a load 2-28. Fluctuating stress for ductile materials 2-29. Cummulative damage in fatigue: (Miner’s equation) 2-30. Fatigue life determined by short-term testing 2-31. Light weight and minimum dimensions 2-32. Elastic matching 2-33. Temperature stresses Examples II Chapter 3 CYLINDERS, TANKS AND PIPES 3-1. Introduction 3-2. Types of vessels 3-3. Design of thin cylinders 3-4. Design of a thin spherical shell 3-5. Cylindrical shell with hemispherical ends 3-6. General theory of membrane stresses in vessels under internal pressure 3-7. Design of pipes 3-8. Design of thick cylinders 3-9. Design equation for thick cylinders Examples III Chapter 4 RIVETED JOINTS 4-1. Introduction 4-2. Rivets 4-3. Rivet heads 4-4. Types of riveted joints 4-5. Caulking and fullering 4-6. Design of a riveted joint for boiler construction 4-7. Efficiency of a riveted joint 4-8. Joints for storage tanks 4-9. Lozenge joint 4-10. Eccentric loads on riveted connections 4-11. Rules in designing riveted joints 4-12. Advantages of welding over riveting Examples IV Chapter 5 BOLTS, NUTS AND SCREWS 5-1. Introduction 5-2. Definitions 5-3. Forms of screw threads 5-4. Advantages of square threads over V threads 5-5. Screw fastenings 5-6. Locking devices for nuts 5-7. Washers 5-8. Eye bolt 5-9. Efficiency of threads 5-10. Stresses in screw fastenings 5-11. Initial stresses 5-12. Stresses due to external forces 5-13. Stresses due to combined load 5-14. Bolts of uniform strength 5-15. Screwed boiler stays 5-16. Bolts subjected to shear 5-17. Bolts under eccentric loading 5-18. Design of a nut 5-19. Power transmitting capacity of set screws Examples V Chapter 6 COTTER AND KNUCKLE JOINTS (A) Design of cpttered joints 6-1. Introduction 6-2. Design of cottered joints 6-3. Gib and cotter 6-4. Connection of a piston rod to a crosshead 6-5. Cotter foundation bolts (B) Design of a knuckle joint 6-6. Introduction 6-7. Joint of suspension links 6-8. Design of a coupler or a turnbuckle Examples VI Chapter 7 SHAFTS, KEYS AND COUPLINGS 7-1. Introduction 7-2. Materials and design stresses 7-3. Design of axles 7-4. Design of shafts on the basis of strength 7-5. Design of shafts on the basis of rigidity 7-6. Design of hollow and non-circular shafts 7-7. Form of keys 7-8. Keys 7-9. Design of sunk keys 7-10. Effect of keyways in sunk keys 7-11. Taper pins 7-12. Feather keys and splined shafts 7-13. Force and shrink fits (Driving fits on solid shafts) 7-14. Couplings: Introduction 7-15. Sleeve couplings or muff couplings 7-16. Clamp or compression couplings 7-17. Flange-couplings 7-18. Marine type of flange couplings 7-19. Flexible couplings 7-20. Bushed pin type of flexible couplings 7-21. Bibby type of flexible coupling 7-22. Leather pad type flexible coupling 7-23. Oldham’s coupling 7-24. Universal coupling 7-25. Safety couplings 7-26. Flexible shafts Examples VII Chapter 8 SPRINGS 8-1. Introduction 8-2. Close coiled helical springs subjected to axial loading — Circular wire 8-3. Optimum design of helical springs 8-4. Helical springs of non-circular wires 8-5. Concentric helical springs 8-6. General considerations in design of compression and extension springs 8-7. Torsion helical springs 8-8. Spiral springs (Power springs) 8-9. Leaf springs 8-10. Belleville springs 8-11. Energy-storage capacity Examples VIII Chapter 9 BEARINGS 9-1. Introduction 9-2. Bearing area 9-3. Sliding bearings: Solid journal bearings 9-4. Divided journal bearing: Plummer block 9-5. Hydrodynamic theory of lubrication 9-6. Oil grooving 9-7. Heating of bearings 9-8. Design procedure for hydrodynamic journal bearings 9-9. Bearing materials 9-10. Design of bearing caps and bolts 9-11. Foot step or pivot bearings 9-12. Collar bearings 9-13. Anti-friction bearings 9-14. Radial ball bearings 9-15. Roller bearings 9-16. Selection of ball and roller bearings 9-17. Bearing load 9-18. Equivalent bearing load 9-19. Carrying capacity and life 9-20. Relationship between load and life 9-21. Requisite bearing life for different types of machines 9-22. Life of Timken bearings 9-23. Influence of high temperatures on load carrying capacity 9-24. Permissible misalignment 9-25. Friction in rolling bearings 9-26. Comparison of sleeve and rolling bearings Examples X Chapter 10 STRUTS AND COLUMNS 10-1. Introduction 10-2. Euler’s formula 10-3. End fixity coefficients 10-4. Radius of gyration and plane of buckling 10-5. Rankine’s formula 10-6. Tetmajer’s formula 10-7. Johnson formula 10-8. Design of push rods 10-9. Eccentrically loaded columns Examples X Chapter 11 POWER SCREWS 11-1. Introduction 11-2. Forms of threads 11-3. Force analysis 11-4. Design of a screw 11-5. Design of a nut 11-6. Practical design of simple lifting machines (screw jack) 11-7. Compound screw 11-8. Differential screw 11-9. Ball screws Examples XI Chapter 12 LEVERS 12-1. Introduction 12-2. General procedure for design of levers 12-3. Hand lever 12-4. Foot lever 12-5. Cranked lever 12-6. Lever of a lever loaded safety valve 12-7. Rocker arm for Diesel engines (Straight arm) 12-8. Angular levers 12-9. Design of overhung cranks 12-10. Design of a crank pin (overhung crank) 12-11. Miscellaneous examples Examples XII Chapter 13 BRACKETS 13-1. Brackets 13-2. Hangers 13-3. Wall boxes 13-4. Design considerations Examples XIII Chapter 14 BELTS, PULLEYS AND CHAIN DRIVES 14-1. Introduction 14-2. Materials for belts 14-3. Design of belts 14-4. Design procedure for flat belts 14-5. V-belt drives 14-6. Design of V-flat drives 14-7. Pulleys: Materials and types 14-8. Cast iron pulleys 14-9. Design of cast iron pulleys 14-10. Steel pulleys 14-11. Wooden pulleys 14-12. Fast and loose pulleys 14-13. Speed cones 14-14. Short centre drive — Gravity idlers 14-15. Special tension adjusting belt drives 14-16. Chain drives (Introduction) 14-17. Roller chains 14-18. Design of chain drives Examples XIV Chapter 15 FLYWHEELS 15-1. Introduction 15-2. Determination of mass of a flywheel for a given coefficient of fluctuation of speed 15-3. Flywheel for punches and shears 15-4. Engine flywheels 15-5. Flywheel for electric generators 15-6. Stresses in rim of flywheels 15-7. Design of a hub 15-8. Arms of the flywheel Examples XV Chapter 16 GEARS 16-1. Introduction (A) Design of spur gears 16-2. General characteristics 16-3. Spur gear terminology 16-4. Gear tooth forms 16-5. Accuracy of gears 16-6. Materials 16-7. Allowable stresses 16-8. Design considerations 16-9. Strength of gear teeth — Lewis equation 16-10. Dynamic tooth load 16-11. Design for wear 16-12. Gear wheel proportions 16-13. Internal gears 16-14. Racks (B) Design of helical gears 16-15. Introduction 16-16. Proportions for helical gears 16-17. Design of helical gear teeth 16-18. Herringbone gears 16-19. Rating of machine cut spur and helical gears (C) Design of bevel gears 16-20. Introduction 16-21. Definitions 16-22. Strength of bevel gear teeth 16-23. Constructional details 16-24. Bearing loads (D) Design of worm gears 16-24. Introduction 16-26. Worm gear nomenclature 16-27. Strength of worm gear teeth 16-28. Bearing loads on the shafts Examples XVI Chapter 17 WELDED CONNECTIONS 17-1. Introduction 17-2. Welding processes 17-3. Types of welded joints 17-4. Working stresses in welds 17-5. Strength of welds 17-6. Special cases of fillet welds 17-7. Eccentric loads on welded connections 17-8. Design procedure recommended by American Welding Society 17-9. Fillet welds under varying loads Examples XVII Chapter 18 DESIGN OF MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE PARTS–I ENGINES AND BOILERS 18-1. Design of flat plates 18-2. Design of a piston for I.C. Engines 18-3. Design of crossheads 18-4. Design of connecting rods 18-5. Design of crankshafts 18-6. Design of a spring-loaded Hartnell governor 18-7. Design of an eccentric 18-8. Compensating ring for a manhole 18-9. Design of safety valves for boilers 18-10. Design of a screw down steam stop valve 18-11. Design of cams (I.C. Engines) 18-12. Design of a valve gear for I.C. Engines Examples XVIII Chapter 19 DESIGN OF MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE PARTS–II BRAKES AND CLUTCHES (A) Hoisting equipments 19-1. Introduction 19-2. Design of hoisting chains and drums 19-3. Design of a hoisting rope 19-4. Design of wire ropes 19-5. Stresses in curved beams 19-6. Design of a crane hook (B) Brakes 19-7. Introduction 19-8. Types of brakes 19-9. Design procedure for block brakes 19-10. Band brakes: Introduction 19-11. Design procedure for band brakes (C) Clutches 19-12. Introduction 19-13. Design procedure for friction clutches Examples XIX Chapter 20 DESIGN PROJECTS 20-1. Introduction APPENDICES I to XVII APPENDIX I : International system of units (SI System) APPENDIX II : Sizes of pulleys for flat and V-belts APPENDIX III : Width of flat cast iron and mild steel pulleys APPENDIX VII : Basic thicknesses of sheet and diameters of wire in millimetres APPENDIX V : Properties of Ferrous Materials APPENDIX VI : Properties of Plastics APPENDIX VII : List of Indian Standards: “Testing of Materials” APPENDIX VIII : Indian Standards referred in the text APPENDIX IX : Preferred Numbers (Rounded values) APPENDIX X : (a) Metric coarse threads (b) Metric Fine threads APPENDIX XI : Common sizes of transmission shafts APPENDIX XII : Deflection formulas for machine parts APPENDIX XIII : Properties of geometrical Sections APPENDIX XIV : Imperial or Legal Standard Wire Gauge APPENDIX XV : Load carrying capacity of V-belts APPENDIX XVI : Service factors for belt drives APPENDIX XVII : Worm data
About the Book
This text-book aims at presenting the fundamental principles of Mechanical Engineering Design. The fundamentals of theory and design are presented as lucidly as possible to enable the students in engineering institutions to get a clear grasp of the basic principles of the subject. It explains the general theory of mechanical engineering design and sets out problems for the students aimed at equipping them for design of machine parts with intelligence and understanding. Throughout this book the chief aim has been to illustrate the subject matter fully with suitable diagrams and by direct treatment of the subject matter. The book contains numerous examples carefully chosen from past examination papers of various Indian Universities. The book is intended for Mechanical Engineering students preparing for degree examinations in engineering of almost all the Indian Universities, diploma examinations of various technical boards, certificate courses, examinations of A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional Examinations. It should also prove of interest and of practical value to practising engineers.
1 : MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION AND THEIR PROPERTIES 2 : DESIGN Considerations IN MACHINE PARTS 3 : CYLINDERS, TANKS AND PIPES 4 : RIVETED JOINTS 5 : BOLTS, NUTS AND SCREWS 6 : COTTER AND KNUCKLE JOINTS 7 : SHAFTS, KEYS AND COUPLINGS 8 : SPRINGS 9 : BEARINGS 10 : STRUTS AND COLUMNS 11 : POWER SCREWS 12 : LEVERS 13 : BRACKETS 14 : BELTS, PULLEYS AND CHAIN DRIVES 15 : FLYWHEELS 16 : GEARS 17 : WELDED CONNECTIONS 18 : DESIGN OF MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE PARTS – I : ENGINES AND BOILERS 19 : DESIGN OF MISCELLANEOUS MACHINE PARTS – II : BRAKES AND CLUTCHES 20 : DESIGN PROJECTS Appendix : I to APPENDIX : XVII INDEX