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THERMAL ENGINEERING VOL. I

TE_9788185594682

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Length170 mm
Thickness36 mm
Height240 mm
Weight1240 gm
AuthorDr. S. S. Khandare
Pages928 + 16 = 944
BindingPaperback
ISBN9788185594682
SizeCrown
Edition1st

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Thermal_Engineering_Vol_I

THERMAL ENGINEERING VOL. I[THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT ENGINES]Dr. S. S. KhandareEdition : 1st Edition : 2008 ISBN : 9788185594682 Size : 170 mm x 240 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 928 + 16 = 944` 325.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis text-book along with its companion volume II is designed to cover the entire syllabi of the subject of Thermal Engineering, which is inherent in the study of engineering students. The entire matter of the book is most comprehensive and presented in lucid language, with number of solved examples, neatly drawn sketches, so that the reader can understand the fundamentals of the subject easily. Number of exercises are given at end of appropriate sections as well as at the end of chapters. Exercises, subjective questions, objective type multiple choice questions are also included at the end of chapters. The book has Sixteen chapters. The key feature of the book are: Chapter 1 and 2 deals with Applied Thermodynamics Chapter 3 deals with Steam and Steam Cycles Chapter 4 to 6 contains Boilers Chapter 7 and 8 deals with Fuel and Draught Chapter 9 consist of the study of Steam Engine and Testing Chapter 10 and 11 deals with Steam Nozzle and Turbine Chapter 12 discussing topic on Condenser Chapter 13 and 14 contains topics on I. C. Engines Theory and Testing Chapter 15 Gas Turbine Chapter 16 Air Pollution and Control. The book within its 928 pages it comprise the following * 546 Self-illustrative neatly drawn sketches * 43 Useful tables * 293 Solved Examples * 500 Objective Type Multiple Choice Questions * 905 Exercises and Subjective Questions It is hoped that this book will satisfy the need of the Mechanical Engineering students preparing for the B.Tech/B.E. examinations of almost all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E. and other similar competitive and professional Examinations. It should also be of an immense help to the practising Engineers.CONTENT1 : INTRODUCTION 2 : THERMODYNAMIC Processes AND CYCLES 3 : PROPERTIES OF STEAM AND STEAM CYCLE 4 : STEAM BOILERS 5 : BOILER MOUNTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 6 : TESTING AND PERFORMANCE OF BOILER 7 : DRAUGHT 8 : FUELS AND COMBUSTION 9 : STEAM ENGINE AND TESTING 10 : STEAM NOZZLE 11 : STEAM TURBINE 12 : CONDENSER 13 : INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 14 : TESTING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 15 : GAS TURBINE 16 : AIR POLLUTION AND CONTROL Appendix A : SHORT QUESTIONS FOR VIVA-VOCE Appendix B : STEAM TABLES with mollier diagram indexTHERMAL ENGINEERING VOL. I Detailed ContentsChapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1. Thermal engineering 1-2. Areas of thermal engineering 1-2-1. Heat engines 1-2-2. Energy sources 1-2-3. Refrigeration and air-conditioning 1-2-4. Heat and mass transfer 1-2-5. Fuel and combustion system 1-2-6. Compressor and blowers 1-2-7. Cryogenics 1-2-8. Jet Propulsion 1-3. Engineering thermodynamics 1-4. Working fluids and thermodynamic system 1-5. Thermodynamic state and thermodynamic process 1-6. System of units 1-7. Units of length, area and volume 1-8. Specific volume 1-9. Units of mass 1-10. Units of force 1-11. Units of work and power 1-12. Units of energy 1-13. Measurements of properties of fluid 1-13-1. Pressure 1-13-2. Temperature 1-14. Zeroth law of thermodynamics 1-15. Temperature measurement 1-16. Pyrometers 1-16-1. Thermo-electric pyrometer 1-16-2. Radiation pyrometer 1-16-3. Optical pyrometer 1-16-4. Pyrometric cone or Seger cone pyrometer 1-17. Absolute temperature scale and absolute zero 1-18. NTP (normal temperature pressure) and STP (standard temperature pressure) conditions 1-19. Volume 1-20. Work 1-21. Heat 1-22. Properties of substances Objective questions Chapter 2 THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES AND CYCLES 2-1. Perfect gas 2-2. Vapour 2-3. Boyle’s law 2-4. Charles’ law 2-5. Combination of laws of Boyle and Charles 2-6. Vander-Waal’s equation 2-7. Units of R 2-8. Universal gas constant 2-9. Avogadro’s law 2-10. Enthalpy 2-11. Entropy 2-12. Intensive and extensive properties 2-13. Thermodynamic system 2-14. Law of conservation of energy 2-15. First law of thermodynamics 2-16. Concepts of the second law of thermodynamics 2-16-1. Kelvin-Plank statement 2-16-2. Clausius statement 2-17. Specific heats of a gas 2-18. Ratio of specific heats 2-19. Relation between the two specific heats of a gas and the specific gas constant 2-20. Expansion and compression of gases 2-21. Point and path functions 2-22. Process 2-23. Constant volume process 2-24. Constant pressure process 2-25. Isothermal process 2-26. Isentropic process 2-27. Polytropic process 2-28. Determination of the index of expansion or compression 2-29. Comparison of work done by a gas during expansion for various processes 2-30. Mean effective pressure 2-31. Summary of equations for gas processes 2-32. Other important processes 2-32-1. Hyperbolic expansion 2-32-2. Free expansion 2-32-3. Throttling process 2-33. Gas tables 2-34. Approximation for heat absorbed 2-35. Typical examples 2-36. Reversibility 2-37. Air standard cydes 2-38. Heat machine 2-39. Useful work 2-40. Efficiency of cycle 2-41. Air standard efficiency of cycle 2-42. Assumptions in thermodynamic cycles 2-43. Thermodynamic cycles 2-44. Carnot cycle 2-45. Otto cycle 2-46. Mean effective pressure 2-47. Diesel cycle 2-48. Dual combustion cycle 2-49. Stirling cycle 2-50. Ericsson cycle 2-51. Brayton cycle 2-52. Comparison of ideal cycles 2-53. Reversed Brayton cycle (Bell-Coleman cycle) 2-54. Coefficient of performance (COP) flow processes Flow processes 2-55. Flow processes 2-56. Steady flow energy equation 2-57. Control volume and flow work 2-58. Flow work of steady flow system 2-59. Applications of steady-flow energy equation Objective questions Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF STEAM AND STEAM CYCLE PROPERTIES OF STEAM 3-1. Vapour and steam 3-2. Conservation of form 3-3. Phase diagram 3-4. Effect of pressure on the boiling point of water 3-5. Temperature-pressure curve for steam 3-6. Generation of one kg of steam at a given pressure from water initially at 0°C 3-7. Conditions of steam 3-8. Saturated steam 3-9. Dry saturated steam and wet steam 3-10. Superheated steam 3-11. Supersaturated steam 3-12. Properties of steam 3-13. Dryness fraction of saturated steam 3-14. Use of steam tables 3-15. Sensible heat 3-16. Latent heat of vaporization 3-17. Enthalpy of wet steam 3-18. Enthalpy of superheated steam 3-19. Specific volume of steam 3-20. Internal energy of steam 3-21. Entropy of vapours 3-22. Temperature–entropy diagram 3-23. Heat entropy chart (Mollier chart) 3-24. Pressure-Enthalpy chart 3-25. Heating and expansion of vapours 3-26. Methods of determination of dryness fraction of steam 3-27. Bucket calorimeter 3-28. Separating calorimeter 3-29. Throttling calorimeter 3-30. Combined separating and throttling calorimeter 3-31. Typical Examples Steam cycle 3-32. Steam cycle 3-33. Carnot cycle 3-34. Rankine cycle 3-35. Comparison of Rankine and Carnot cycles on temperature entropy diagram 3-36. Work done during Rankine cycle on pressure-volume diagram 3-37. Modified Rankine cycle Objective questions Chapter 4 STEAM BOILERS 4-1. Functions of boiler 4-2. Classification of boilers 4-3. Terms commonly employed in connection with boilers 4-4. Lancashire boiler Construction of Lancashire boilers 4-5. Cornish boiler 4-6. Multi-tubular fire tube boilers 4-7. Horizontal return tubular boilers 4-8. Locomotive boiler 4-9. Vertical boilers 4-10. Cochran boiler Construction of Cochran boiler 4-11. Scotch Marine fire-tube boiler Construction of Scotch Marine fire-tube boiler 4-12. Water tube boilers 4-13. Babcock and Wilcox water tube boiler 4-13-1. Construction of Babcock and Wilcox type boiler 4-13-2. Settings for the Babcock and Wilcox boiler 4-14. Stirling boiler (Bent tube type water tube boiler) 4-15. Integral furnace boiler 4-16. Waste heat boilers 4-17. Super critical boilers 4-18. Boiler specifications 4-19. Fluidized bed combustions boilers (FBC) 4-19-1. Pulverized coal firing system 4-19-2. Pulverized fuel 4-19-3. Advantages of pulverized fuels 4-19-4. Disadvantages of stroker firing system 4-19-5. Fluidized bed combustion 4-19-6. Advantages of FBC boilers 4-19-7. Classification of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boilers 4-20. Thermal efficiency of FBC boiler 4-20-1. Unburnt fuel in flue gases 4-20-2. Sensible heat in flue gases 4-20-3. Surface radiation losses 4-21. Pulverized fuel handling systems 4-21-1. Unit system 4-21-2. Central or bin system 4-22. Pulverized fuel burners 4-22-1. Long flame or U-flame or streamlined burners 4-22-2. Short tlame or turbulent burner 4-22-3. Tangential burners 4-23. Modern boilers 4-23-1. La Mont boiler 4-23-2. Benson boiler 4-23-3. Loeffler boiler 4-23-4. Schmidt-Hartmann boiler 4-23-5. Velox boiler 4-24. Advantages of high pressure boilers Objective questions Chapter 5 BOILER MOUNTINGS AND ACCESSORIES 5-1. Boiler mountings 5-2. Safety valves 5-2-1. Dead weight safety valve 5-2-2. Spring loaded safety valve 5-2-3. Lever loaded safety valve 5-2-4. High steam and low water safety valve 5-3. Water level indicators 5-4. Pressure gauge 5-5. Attachment for inspector’s test gauge 5-6. Steam stop valve 5-7. Feed check valve 5-8. Blow-off cock 5-9. Manhole 5-10. Fusible plug 5-11. Boiler accessories 5-12. Economizers 5-13. Air pre-heaters 5-14. Superheaters 5-14-1. Methods of superheating steam 5-14-2. Methods of control of superheat 5-14-3. Smooth tube hairpin type superheater 5-14-4. Multiple loop superheaters 5-15. Feed pumps 5-15-1. Duplex feed pump 5-16. Steam drier or separator 5-17. Steam trap 5-17-1. Expansion trap 5-17-2. Bucket or float steam trap 5-18. Injectors 5-19. Pressure reducing valve Objective questions Chapter 6 TESTING AND PERFORMANCE OF BOILER 6-1. Feed water 6-2. Steam 6-3. Fuel 6-4. Duration of boiler test 6-5. Flue gas sampling 6-6. Flue gas temperature measurement 6-7. Air 6-8. Draught 6-9. External heat losses from boiler and brick work 6-10. Auxiliary Plant 6-11. Air Infiltration and by-passing 6-12. Performance test 6-13. Thermal efficiency of boiler 6-14. Evaporation 6-15. Evaporation ratio 6-16. Boiler performance 6-17. Equivalent evaporation 6-18. Reference standards 6-19. Direct method of testing 6-20. Indirect method of testing 6-21. Measurements required for direct method of testing 6-22. Boiler efficiency 6-23. Indirect method of testing 6-24. Measurement of parameters 6-25. Calculation of boiler efficiency by indirect method 6-26. Heat losses in boiler 6-27. Boiler heat balance 6-28. Boiler trial 6-28-1. Objective of a boiler trial 6-28-2. Plant 6-28-3. Report sheet on boiler trial 6-28-4. Specimen set of calculations 6-28-5. Graphical representation of results 6-28-6. Conclusions and criticisms 6-29. Boiler house instruments 6-30. Boiler house records Economic analysis 6-31. Typical examples Objective questions Chapter 7 DRAUGHT 7-1. Definition of draught 7-2. Classification of draught 7-3. Functions of a chimney 7-4. Natural draught 7-5. Determination of a height of a chimney to produce a given total static draught 7-6. Condition for maximum discharge through a chimney 7-7. Efficiency of a chimney 7-8. Draught losses 7-9. Artificial draught 7-10. Mechanical draught 7-11. Induced draught 7-12. Forced draught 7-13. Balanced draught 7-14. Power required to drive a fan 7-14-1. Power required for forced draught fan 7-14-2. Power required for an induced draught fan 7-15. Steam jet draught 7-16. Draught gauges Objective questions Chapter 8 FUELS AND COMBUSTION FUELS 8-1. Classification of fuels 8-2. Solid fuels 8-3. Liquid fuels 8-4. Hydrocarbons 8-5. Gaseous fuels 8-6. Calorific value of fuels 8-7. Theoretical determination of calorific value of fuel 8-8. Calorific value of gaseous fuels 8-9. Experimental determination of calorific value of a fuel 8-10. Bomb calorimeter 8-11. Calorific value of liquid fuels 8-12. Calorific value of gaseous fuels 8-13. Gas calorimeters 8-13-1. Boy’s gas calorimeter 8-13-2. Junker’s gas calorimeter 8-14. Alternative fuels COMBUSTION 8-15. Combustion of a fuel 8-15-1. Combustion of carbon 8-15-2. Combustion of carbon monoxide 8-15-3. Combustion of hydrogen 8-15-4. Combustion of sulphur 8-16. Stoichiometric air–fuel ratio 8-17. Excess air 8-18. Determination of the flue gas analysis by mass and by volume 8-19. Determination of air supplied from volumetric analysis of flue gases 8-20. Determination of air leakage in boiler flues 8-21. Determination of the quantity of air supplied per kg of fuel from the analysis of flue gases when given by mass 8-22. Chemically correct air fuel ratio 8-22-1. Combustion of hydrogen 8-22-2. Combustion of carbon monoxide 8-22-3. Combustion of marsh gas 8-22-4. Excess air coefficient 8-23. Determination of flue gas analysis by volume and by mass in case of gaseous fuel 8-24. Determination of quantity of air supplied per m3 of gas from dry flue gas analysis in case of gaseous fuels 8-25. Calculation of heat losses 8-26. Exhaust gas analysis 8-26-1. Conventional method 8-26-2. Modern methods 8-27. Determination of air-fuel ratio with the help of dry flue gas analysis Objective questions Chapter 9 STEAM ENGINE AND TESTING 9-1. Introduction 9-2. Classification 9-3. Parts of a simple steam engine 9-4. Function of steam engine parts 9-5. Terms connected with steam engines 9-6. Working of a steam engine 9-7. Hypothetical indicator diagram 9-8. Construction of hypothetical indicator diagram 9-9. Determination of mean effective pressure 9-10. Work done in a steam engine cylinder during in hypothetical cycle 9-11. Actual indicator diagram and diagram factor 9-12. Determination of “theoretical indicated power” 9-13. Indicator 9-14. Steam consumption 9-15. Missing quantity 9-15-1. Causes of missing quantity 9-15-2. Means of reducing cylinder condensation 9-16. Efficiencies 9-17. Steam engine governors 9-18. Flywheel 9-19. Compound steam engines 9-20. Advantages of compounding of steam engine 9-21. Classification of compound engines 9-22. Terms used in connection with compound engines 9-23. Mean effective pressure referred to the L.P. cylinder 9-24. Estimation of cylinder dimensions (two cylinder compound engine) 9-25. Triple and quadruple expansion engines 9-26. Governing of compound engines 9-27. Uniflow engines 9-28. Purpose of engine trials 9-29. Trial procedure 9-30. The brake power and its measurements 9-30-1. Brake power 9-30-2. Measurement of brake power 9-31. Mechanical efficiency 9-32. Report on simple steam engine trial Objective questions Chapter 10 STEAM NOZZLE 10-1. Introduction 10-2. Types of nozzles 10-3. Mass flow rate 10-4. Flow of wet steam 10-5. Flow through steam nozzles 10-6. Velocity of steam leaving nozzle 10-7. Effect of friction in nozzle 10-8. Friction loss 10-9. Mass of steam discharged 10-10. Critical pressure ratio 10-11. Design of nozzle 10-12. Length of nozzle 10-13. Velocity coefficient 10-14. Sub-sonic and super-sonic flow 10-15. Supersaturated or metastable expansion of steam in the nozzle 10-16. Wilson line 10-17. Steam injector Objective questions Chapter 11 STEAM TURBINE SIMPLE STEAM TURBINE 11-1. Introduction 11-2. Types of steam turbines 11-3. Classification of steam turbine 11-4. Impulse turbine 11-4-1. Velocity diagram of steam turbine 11-4-2. Forces on the blade and work done 11-5. Effect of blade friction on velocity diagram 11-6. Blade speed ratio 11-7. Single stage impulse turbine maximum efficiency relation 11-8. Simple de–laval turbine MULTI-STAGE STEAM TURBINE 11-9. Methods of reducing rotor speed or compounding of stages 11-9-1. Velocity–compounded impulse turbine 11-9-2. Efficiency of a velocity-compounded turbine 11-9-3. Velocity diagram for axial discharge 11-10. Pressure-compounded impulse turbine 11-11. Pressure–velocity compounded impulse turbine 11-12. Parson’s reaction turbine 11-13. Velocity diagram for reaction turbine 11-14. Degree of reaction 11-15. Condition for maximum efficiency 11-16. Height of blades for reaction turbine 11-17. Re-heat factor 11-18. Re-heating process 11-18-1. Advantages of re-heating 11-19. Regenerative feed heating or bleeding process 11-20. Steam turbine governing 11-20-1. Throttle governing 11-20-2. Nozzle control governing 11-20-3. By–pass governing 11-21. Erosion of turbine blades 11-22. Advantages of steam turbine over gas turbine Objective questions Chapter 12 CONDENSER 12-1. Function of condenser 12-2. Type of condensers 12-3. Jet condensers 12-4. Surface condenser 12-5. Central flow type condenser 12-6. Evaporative condenser 12-7. Reasons for inefficiency in surface condenser 12-8. Air leakage in condenser 12-9. Vacuum 12-10. Effect of air in a condenser 12-11. Methods for obtaining maximum vacuum in condenser 12-12. Vacuum efficiency 12-13. Coefficient of performance or efficiency of surface condenser 12-14. Determination of circulating water required in condenser 12-15. Heat transmission in tubes 12-16. Cooling towers 12-17. Condenser efficiency 12-18. Air pump 12-18-1. Types of pump 12-19. Steam jet air ejector 12-20. Modern air ejector plant 12-21. Exhaust connections Objective questions Chapter 13 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 13-1. Introduction 13-2. Applications 13-3. Basic operation of I.C. engine 13-4. Classification of I.C. engines 13-5. Terms connected with I.C. Engine 13-7. Construction of I.C. engines 13-8. I.C. engine cycles 13-9. Four stroke cycle engine principle 13-10. Valve-timing diagram 13-11. Two stroke cycle engine 13-11-1. Port type engine 13-11-2. Reed valve 13-12. Comparison of two stroke cycle and four stroke cycle engines 13-13. Compression ignition engines 13-14. Fuel pump and injector 13-15. Combustion chambers 13-16. Spark ignition engines 13-17. Carburettor 13-17-1. Fuel pump for petrol engine 13-18. Ignition system 13-19. Spark plug 13-20. Ignition advance mechanism 13-21. Magneto ignition system 13-22. Electronic ignition system 13-23. Capacitor discharge system 13-24. Advantages of breakerless electronic ignition system 13-25. Electronic fuel Injection system for petrol engines 13-26. Advantages and disadvantages of C.I. engine over S.I. engine 13-27. Comparison of S.I. and C.I. engine 13-28. Lubrication in I.C. engine 13-29. Coefficient of friction 13-30. Viscosity 13-31. Properties of a lubricant 13-32. Tests of lubricants 13-33. Mechanical testing of a lubricant 13-34. Thurston oil testing machine 13-35. Methods of lubrication 13-36. Oil filter 13-37. Lubrication of an I.C. engine 13-38. Closed crankcase engines 13-39. Lubrication of the horizontal engines 13-40. Types of lubrication system 13-41. Wet sump lubrication system 13-41-1. Splash system 13-41-2. Semi-pressurised system 13-41-3. Pressurised lubrication system 13-42. Dry sump lubrication system 13-43. Mist lubrication system 13-44. Cooling system 13-45. Air cooling system 13-46. Water cooling system 13-47. Combustion in SI and C.I. engine 13-48. Normal combustion in S.I. engine 13-49. Abnormal combustion in S.I. engine 13-49-1. Pre-ignition 13-49-2. Detonation or knocking 13-50. Factor affective detonation or knocking 13-51. Highest useful compression ratio (HUCR) 13-52. Octane number 13-53. Performance number 13-54. Normal combustion in C.I. engine 13-55. Abnormal combustion in C.I. engine 13-56. Factor affecting combustion in C.I. engine 13-57. Centane number 13-58. Scavenging 13-59. Supercharging of I.C. engines 13-60. Firing order of the engine 13-61. Methods of starting I.C. engines 13-62. Gas engines 13-63. Dual-fuel engines 13-64. Governing of I.C. engines 13-65. Gas producer Objective questions Chapter 14 TESTING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 14-1. Introduction 14-2. Testing of constant speed internal combustion engines according to Indian standard 14-3. Performance test according to Indian standard Power testing Speed testing Frictional power Fuel consumption 14-4. Measurement of speed 14-5. Measurement of power 14-6. Indicated power 14-7. Brake power 14-8. Types of dynamometer 14-9. Mechanical efficiency 14-10. Measurement of air consumption 14-11-1. Viscous air flow meter 14-11-2. Air box meter 14-12. Volumetric efficiency 14-13. Fuel consumption 14-14. Specific fuel consumption 14-15. Thermal efficiency 14-15-1. Indicated thermal efficiency 14-15-2. Brake thermal efficiency 14-16. Effect of parameter on efficiency 14-17. Effect of various parameters on thermal efficiency 14-18. Effect of parameters on volumetric efficiency 14-19. Testing of engine 14-20. Specimen set of calculations for test 14-21. Graphical representation of results 14-22. Conclusions and criticisms 14-23. Exhaust gas calorimeter 14-24. Engine performance curves Objective questions Chapter 15 GAS TURBINE 15-1. Introduction 15-2. Advantages of gas turbines over reciprocating Internal combustion engines 15-3. Advantages of gas turbine over steam turbine 15-4. Applications of gas turbines 15-5. Types of gas turbines 15-5-1. Constant volume or explosion type 15-5-2. Constant pressure or continuous combustion type turbine 15-6. Fuel in gas turbines 15-7. Air standard cycle for gas turbine 15-8. Work ratio 15-9. Classification of gas turbine cycles 15-9-1. Open cycle 15-9-2. Closed cycle gas turbine 15-10. Working medium 15-11. Advantages of closed cycle gas turbines 15-12. Effect of friction or actual process 15-13. Types of compressors 15-14. Use of heat exchanger 15-15. Effectiveness of heat exchanger 15-16. Intercooling and reheating 15-17. Representation of various gas turbine cycles on T–f diagram 15-18. Pressure losses in the system 15-19. Semiclosed cycle gas turbine 15-20. Turbo-charging 15-21. Combined cycle power plant 15-22. Co-generation 15-22-1. Topping cycle 15-22-2. Bottoming cycle 15-23. Erosion in gas turbine Chapter 16 AIR POLLUTION AND CONTROL 16-1. Introduction 16-2. Automotive air pollution 16-3. Climatic effect 16-4. Types of air pollution 16-5. Sources of automotive air pollution 16-6. Harmful constituents of exhaust gas 16-7. Public health risk 16-8. Study of emissions 16-8-1. Causes and process of formation of pollutants 16-8-2. Unburned hydrocarbon 16-8-3. Nitrogen oxide 16-8-4. Carbon mono-oxide 16-8-5. Engine particulate emissions 16-8-6. Lead compounds 16-9. Laws of automotive air pollution 16-10. Emission control techniques 16-11. Engine design modification 16-12. Using external devices 16-13. Water injection system 16-14. Air injection system 16-15. Thermal reactor 16-16. Ammonia injection 16-17. Exhaust gas recirculator (EGR) 16-18. Catalytic convertor system 16-19. Pollution control in thermal power stations 16-20. Dust collection and its disposal 16-21. Type of gas cleaning devices 16-22. Gravitational separators 16-23. Centrifugal separator 16-24. Inertia type 16-25. Scrubbing dust collector 16-26. Filter type dust separator 16-27. Electrostatic precipitator 16-28. Ash handling system 16-29. Hydraulic ash handling system 16-29-1. Low velocity system 16-29-2. High velocity system 16-30. Pneumatic ash handling system 16-31. Steam jet system 16-32. Ash disposal and their uses 16-33. Combustion control APPENDIX A SHORT QUESTIONS FOR VIVA-VOCE APPENDIX B STEAM TABLES WITH MOLLIER DIAGRAM

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