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MACHINE DRAWING

MD_9789385039232

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Length170 mm
Thickness23
Height235 mm
Weight685 mm
AuthorN. D. Bhatt
Pages528 + 16 = 544
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789385039232
SizeCrown
Edition50th
Year 2016

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Machine_Drawing

MACHINE DRAWING[IN FIRST-ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD] [INCLUDING COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (CADr)]N. D. BhattEdition : 50th Edition : 2016 ISBN : 9789385039232 Size : 170 mm × 235 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 528 + 16 = 544` 250.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis well-known text book gives complete knowledge on the subject of Machine Drawing, Mechanical Drafting and Production Drawing. It follows (i) the metric system of length measurement and (ii) first-angle method of orthographic projection. However, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. This Fiftieth Edition is thoroughly revised and extensively enlarged. Numerous new drawings and text matter have been incorporated to optimise the utility of the book. The chapter on Engine Parts are divided in two separate chapters such as (1) Steam Engine Parts and (2) Internal Combustion (I.C.) Engine Parts. Chapter on Computer Aided Drafting (CADr) is entirely rewritten with 52 self-interactive and self-learning practice modules. It describes in an easy-to-follow style and with application of the principles of orthographic projection, forms, proportions and uses of simple machine parts, engine parts and boiler parts. The techniques of freehand sketching, dimensioning, conversion of pictorial views, sectional views and interpretation of views are treated in clear and simple manner. Most of the orthographic views are accompanied by the pictorial views of the objects to enable the students to visualize the shapes easily. The book covers the syllabi of Machine Drawing to meet the requirements of students of Mechanical Engineering Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities as well as Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for I.T.I. students and also to the candidates reading for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E. and similar competitive and professional examinations.CONTENT1 : PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION 2 : SHEET LAYOUT AND FREE-HAND SKETCHING 3 : LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 4 : CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 5 : SECTIONAL VIEWS 6 : ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR INTERPRETATION OF VIEWS [INCLUDING BLUE-PRINT READING, MISSING LINES AND MISSING VIEWS] 7 : SCREW THREADS 8 : SCREWED FASTENINGS 9 : KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS AND PIN-JOINTS 10 : PIPE JOINTS 11 : VALVES 12 : RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 13 : SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS 14 : SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AND BREAKS 15 : PULLEYS 16 : SPUR GEARING 17 : STEAM ENGINE PARTS 18 : INTERNAL COMBUSTION (I.C.) ENGINE PARTS 19 : ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION DRAWING 20 : ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS 21 : COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (CADr) INDEXMACHINE DRAWING Detailed ContentsChapter 1 PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION 1-1. Introduction 1-2. Principle of projection 1-3. Methods of projection 1-4. Orthographic projection 1-5. Planes of projection 1-6. Four quadrants 1-7. First-angle projection 1-8. Third-angle projection 1-9 Reference line 1-10. Symbols for methods of projection 1-11. Comparison of six views in first angle projection method and third angle projection method 1-12. Combination of first angle projection method and third angle projection method 1-13. B.I.S. code of practice 1-14. Isometric projection 1-15. Oblique projection 1-16. Perspective projection Exercises 1 Chapter 2 SHEET LAYOUT AND FREE-HAND SKETCHING 2-1. Sheet layout (1) Drawing papers and drawing sheet sizes (2) Margin (3) Border lines (4) Borders and frames (5) Orientation mark (6) Grid reference system (zones system) (7) Title block (8) List of parts or the bill of materials (9) Revisions of drawing (10) Folding marks (11) Scales and scale drawing 2-2. Types of machine drawings (1) Production drawing (2) Exploded assembly drawing (3) Schematic assembly drawing (4) Drawing for instruction manual (5) Drawing for installation (6) Drawing for catalogue (7) Tabular drawing (8) Patent drawing 2-3. Free-hand Sketching (1) Sketching or freehand (2) Sketching materials (3) To sketch straight lines (4) To sketch circles and arcs (5) Sketching procedure (6) Steps in sketching Exercises 2 Chapter 3 LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 3-1. Introduction 3-2. Lines (1) Line thickness (2) Inked drawings (3) Pencil drawings 3-2-1. Types of Lines (1) Outlines (2) Margin lines (3) Dimension lines (4) Extension or projection lines (5) Construction lines (6) Hatching or section lines (7) Leader or pointer lines (8) Border lines (9) Short-break lines (10) Long-break lines (11) Hidden or dotted lines (12) Centre lines (13) Cutting-plane lines (14) Chain thick (15) Chain thin double-dots 3-3. Lettering (1) Single-stroke letters (2) Gothic letters 3-4. Dimensioning Types of dimensions 3-5. Dimensioning terms and notations (1) Dimension line (2) Extension line (3) Arrowhead (4) Note (5) Leader 3-6. Placing of dimensions (1) Aligned system (2) Unidirectional system 3-7. Unit of dimensioning 3-8. General rules for dimensioning 3-9. Practical hints on dimensioning Exercises 3 Chapter 4 CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 4-1. Introduction 4-2. Orthographic projection 4-3. Procedure for preparing a scale-drawing 4-4. Illustrative problems Exercises 4 Solutions to Exercises 4 Chapter 5 SECTIONAL VIEWS 5-1. Introduction 5-2. Cutting-plane line 5-3. Types of sectional views 5-3-1. Full section 5-3-2. Half section 5-3-3. Partial or broken section 5-3-4. Revolved section 5-3-5. Removed section 5-3-6. Offset section 5-4. Sectioning conventions 5-5. Hatching or section lines 5-6. Conventions of section lines 5-7. Illustrative problems Exercises 5 Solutions to exercises 5 Chapter 6 ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR INTERPRETATION OF VIEWS [INCLUDING BLUE-PRINT READING, MISSING LINES AND MISSING VIEWS] 6-1. Introduction 6-2. Reading of orthographic views [Blue-print reading] 6-3. Missing lines and missing views 6-4. Identification of planes Exercises 6 Solutions to exercises 6 Chapter 7 SCREW THREADS 7-1. Introduction 7-2. Definitions (1) Crest (2) Root (3) Flank (4) Angle (5) Depth (6) Nominal diameter (7) Outside or major diameter (8) Core or minor diameter (9) Effective diameter (10) Pitch (11) Lead (12) Slope 7-3. Forms of screw threads 7-3-1. Triangular or V threads (1) Unified thread (2) Metric thread (3) British Standard Whitworth thread (B.S.W.) (4) British Standard Fine (B.S.F.) threads and British Standard Pipe (B.S.P.) threads (5) Sellers thread (6) British Association (B.A.) thread 7-3-2. Square thread (1) Acme thread (2) Knuckle thread (3) Buttress thread 7-4. Conventional representation of threads 7-4-1. Method I (1) External threads (2) Internal threads 7-4-2. Method II (1) External V thread (2) Internal V thread (3) External square thread (4) Internal square thread 7-5. Multiple-start threads 7-6. Right-hand and left-hand threads Exercises 7 Chapter 8 SCREWED FASTENINGS 8-1. Introduction 8-2. Types of nuts 8-2-1. Hexagonal nut 8-2-2. Square nut 8-3. Types of nuts for special purpose (1) Flanged nut (2) Cap nut (3) Dome nut (4) Cylindrical or capstan nut (5) Ring nut (6) Wing nut 8-4. Washers 8-5. Bolts 8-6. Forms of bolts (1) Hexagonal-headed bolt (2) Square-headed bolt (3) Cylindrical or cheese-headed bolt (4) Cup-headed or round-headed bolt (5) T-headed bolt (6) Countersunk-headed bolt (7) Hook bolt (8) Headless tapered bolt (9) Eye-bolt (10) Lifting eye-bolt (11) Tap-bolt or cap-screw (12) Stud-bolt or stud 8-7. Set-screws 8-8. Locking arrangements for nuts (1) Lock-nut or check-nut (2) Split-pin (3) Slotted nut (4) Castle nut (5) Sawn nut or Wiles nut (6) Simmond’s lock-nut (7) Penn, ring or grooved nut (8) Stop-plate or locking-plate (9) Spring-washer 8-9. Foundation bolts (1) Eye or Hoop bolt (2) Rag bolt (3) Lewis bolt (4) Cotter bolt (5) Curved or bent bolt (6) Square-headed bolt 8-10. Spanner 8-11. Longitudinal or bar stay 8-12. Conventional symbols for nuts and bolts Exercises 8 Chapter 9 KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS AND PIN-JOINTS 9-1. Introduction 9-2. Keys joints 9-2-1. Taper keys (1) Sunk taper key (2) Saddle keys (i) Hollow saddle key (ii) Flat saddle key (3) Round key or pin key (4) Taper pin (5) Gib-head 9-2-2. Parallel or feather keys 9-2-3. Spline shafts 9-2-4. Woodruff key 9-2-5. Cone keys 9-2-6. Staking-on 9-4. Cotter and cotter joints 9-4. Types of cotter joints (1) Socket and spigot joint (2) Sleeve joint (3) Strap joint 9-5. Pin-joint or Knuckle joint Exercises 9 Chapter 10 PIPE JOINTS 10-1. Introduction 10-2. Cast-iron pipes 10-2-1. Cast-iron flanged joint 10-2-2. Socket and spigot joint 10-2-3. Hydraulic joint 10-3. Wrought-iron and steel pipes 10-4. Copper pipes 10-5. Union joint 10-6. Lead pipes 10-7. Expansion joints 10-8. Piping drawings Exercises 10 Chapter 11 VALVES 11-1. Introduction 11-2. Types of valves 11-2-1. Flap valve India-rubber disc valve 11-2-2. Ball valve 11-2-3. Metal disc valve 11-2-4. Stop valves 11-2-5. Feed-check valve 11-3. Safety valves 11-3-1. Spring-loaded safety valves 11-3-2. Lever safety valve 11-3-3. Dead-weight safety valve 11-4. Blow-off cock Exercises 11 Chapter 12 RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 12-1. Introduction 12-2. Riveting 12-3. Caulking and fullering 12-4. Forms and proportions of rivet-heads 12-5. Failure of riveted joints 12-6. Dimensions of a riveted joint 12-7. Types of riveted joints 12-7-1. Lap joint 12-7-2. Butt joint 12-8. Rolled-steel sections 12-8-1. Connection of plates at right angles 12-8-2. Gusset stay 12-9. Welded joints 12-9-1. Welding 12-9-2. Types of welding process (1) Pressure welding or forge welding (2) Fusion welding (3) Fusion and pressure welding 12-9-3. Types of welded and welds joints (1) Types of welded joints (2) Types of welds 12-9-4. Representation of welded joints Exercises 12 Chapter 13 SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS 13-1. Introduction 13-2. Journal bearings 13-2-1. Solid bearing 13-2-2. Bushed bearing 13-2-3. Pedestal bearing or plummer block 13-2.4. Methods of preventing rotation of brasses in a bearing 13-3. Pivot bearing: Foot-step bearing 13-4. Wall brackets 13-5. Hangers 13-6. Wall-plates 13-7. Wall-box Exercises 13 Chapter 14 SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AND BREAKS 14-1. Introduction 14-2. Fast or rigid couplings 14-2-1. Box or muff coupling 14-2-2. Half-lap coupling 14-2-3. Split-muff coupling 14-3. Flanged coupling 14-3-1. Protected type flange-coupling 14-3-2. Solid flanged coupling 14-4. Flexible couplings 14-4-1. Universal coupling or Hook’s joint 14-4-2. Oldham’s coupling 14-4-3. Gear coupling 14-5. Loose or disengaging couplings or clutches 14-5-1. Claw coupling or clutch 14-5-2. Conical friction coupling or Cone friction clutch 14-5-3. Single plate clutch 14-6. Brakes 14-6-1. Double block brake 14-6-2. Band brake Exercises 14 Chapter 15 PULLEYS 15-1. Introduction 15-2. Types of Pulleys 15-3. Cast iron (C.I.) belt pulleys 15-4. Fast and loose (f & L) pulleys 15-5. Speed cones or stepped pulleys 15-6. Split pulleys 15-8. Rope pulleys 15-9. V-belt pulleys Exercises 15 Chapter 16 SPUR GEARING 16-1. Introduction 16-2. Spur gear definitions (1) Pitch circle (2) Pitch surface (3) Pitch point (4) Centre distance (5) Tooth face (6) Tooth flank (7) Crest of tooth (8) Root of tooth (9) Tooth thickness (10) Addendum (11) Dedendum (12) Clearance (13) Whole depth (14) Working depth (15) Addendum circle (16) Dedendum circle (17) Fillet radius (18) Pinion (19) Rack 16-3. Pitch definitions (1) Circular pitch, C.P. (2) Diametral pitch, D.P. (3) Module pitch, m (4) Chordal pitch 16-4. Relationship between the pitches 16-5. Tooth proportions 16-6. Involute spur gears (1) Involute (2) Base circle (3) Line of action (4) Pressure angle or angle of obliquity 16-7. Construction of base circles 16-8. Approximate construction of teeth profile (1) For gears of 30 teeth and over (2) For gears of less than 30 teeth 16-9. Gears in mesh 16-10. Rack and pinion 16-11. Cycloidal tooth profile Exercises 16 Chapter 17 STEAM ENGINE PARTS 17-1. Introduction 17-2. Steam engine 17-3. Working of steam engine 17-4. Steam engine parts 17-5. Piston assembly 17-6. Stuffing boxes 17-7. Cross-heads 17-8. Connecting rods (1) Large or Big end (connected to crank) (2) Small or little end (connected to cross-head) 17-9. Cranks (1) Overhung crank (2) Disc crank (3) Forged crank 17-10. Eccentrics and eccentric rod 17-11. Cylinder 17-12. Cylinder covers 17-13. d-Slide valve 17-14. Steam chest 17-15. Steam chest top cover 17-16. Valve rod 17-17. Knuckle joint 17-18. Plummer block 17-19. Governor (1) Construction of Governor (2) Working of Governor 17-20. Flywheel Exercises 17 Chapter 18 INTERNAL COMBUSTION (I.C.) ENGINE PARTS 18-1. Introduction 18-2. An I. C. Engine 18-3. Working of an I. C. Engine (1) Suction stroke (2) Compression stroke (3) Power or expansion stroke (4) Exhaust stroke 18-4. I. C. Engine parts 18-5. Crank case 18-6. Crank 18-6-1. Crank web 18-6-2. Crank pin 18-6-3. Crank shaft (1) Forged crankshaft (2) Built-up crank 18-7. Driving gear 18-9. Gear nut 18-9. Connecting rod 18-10. Piston 18-11. Piston rings 18-12. Gudgeon pin 18-13. Circlip 18-14. Cylinder 18-15. Spark plug 18-16. Cylinder head 18-17. Cam shaft 18-18. Head cover 18-19. Cam sprocket 18-20. Timing chain 18-21. Rocker arm 18-22. Valves 18-23. Springs 18-24. Crank flywheel 18-25. Crank nut 18-26. Crank sprocket 18-27. Gaskets 18-28. Carburettor Exercises 18 Chapter 19 ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION DRAWING 19-1. Introduction 19-2. Geometrical tolerances 19-3. Types of geometrical tolerances (1) Form tolerances (2) Position tolerances 19-4. Terminology for geometrical deviations (1) Tolerance of straightness (2) Tolerance of flatness (3) Barrel form, bow form and curvature of axes (4) Taper (5) Oval form and lobed form (6) Radial run out and axial run out (7) Misalignment (8) Non-perpendicular surfaces (9) Incorrect location of intersecting axes (10) Datum 19-5. Representation of geometrical tolerance on a drawing 19-6. Dimensional tolerances 19-7. Terminology for dimensional tolerances (1) Basic dimension or basic size (2) Upper deviation (3) Lower deviation (4) Tolerance zone (5) Actual size (6) Zero line (7) Unilateral limits (8) Bilateral limits (9) (i) Maximum material condition (MMC) (ii) Minimum or least material condition (LMC) (10) Allowance (11) Mating surfaces and mating dimensions (12) Basic shaft (13) Basic hole 19-8. Selection of tolerances 19-9. Representation of dimensional tolerances (1) Letter symbol (2) Number or grade method 19-10. Representation of dimensional tolerances on drawings 19-11. Fits (1) Clearance fit (2) Interference fit (3) Transition fit (4) Sliding fit 19-12. Hole basis and shaft basis system (1) Hole basis system (2) Shaft basis system 19-13. Representation of holes, shafts and fits 19-14. Surface-roughness 19-15. Terminology for surface roughness (1) Ideal surface (2) Roughness (i) Roughness height (ii) Mean roughness index (iii) Surface roughness number (3) Waviness (4) Lay 19-16. Representation of surface-roughness on drawings 19-17. Conventional representation of machine parts Exercises 19 Chapter 20 ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS 20-1. Introduction 20-2. Types of assembly drawings (1) Designed assembly (2) Layout assembly (3) Installation assembly (4) Working drawing assembly (5) General assembly 20-3. Accepted norms to be observed for assembly drawings (1) Selection of views (2) Sectioning (3) Dotted lines (4) Dimensions (5) Bill of materials 20-4. Sequences of preparing the assembly drawing 20-5. Illustrative problems Exercises 20 Chapter 21 COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING (CADr) 21-1. Introduction 21-2. Computer 21-2-1. Organisation of a computer 21-3. Computer hardware for cad 21-3-1. Processor (CPU) 21-3-2. Visual display unit or monitor 21-3-3. Main memory ‘ram’ (fig. 21-2) 21-3-4. Input devices (fig. 21-2) (1) Keyboard (2) Mouse (3) Tablet or Digitizer 21-3-5. Graphic output devices (1) Dot Matrix Printers (DMP) (2) Pen Plotters (fig. 21-2) (3) Ink-Jet printers/plotters (4) Laser printers 21-4. CAD software Features of CAD softwares (1) Modelling and Drafting (2) Ease of use (3) Flexibility (4) Modularity (5) Low maintenance cost 21-5. Computer aided drafting 21-6. AutoCAD 21-6-1. Hardware required for AutoCAD 2015/2016 21-6-2. Classic and ribbon screen layout of AutoCAD 2015/2016 21-6-3. Function keys 21-6-4. Drawing entities (draw commands) (1) Setting limits of drawing area (2) DRAW commands (3) ZOOM command (4) Object snap (5) Object Selection Method (6) Modify commands (7) File handling commands (8) (i) Text (ii) MText (Multiple text) (9) Symbol library (block, wblock and insert) 21-7. Two dimensional drawings (1) Absolute coordinate method (2) Relative coordinate method (3) Relative polar coordinate method 21-8. Isometric drawings (1) To set isometric mode (2) To set Isoplane (3) Drawing isometric circles (4) Isometric text (5) Isometric dimension 21-9. 3D geometrical modelling 21-9-1. 3D Wireframe modelling (1) VPOINT command (2) UCS command Methods to Locate Points in Space to generate 3D Wireframe Model (1) 3D Absolute Coordinate Method (2) 3D Rectangular Coordinate Method (3) 3D Cylindrical Coordinate Method (4) 3D Spherical Coordinate Method 21-9-2. 3D Surface Modelling (1) VPOINT (2) UCS (3) SHADEMODE command (4) ELEV command (5) 3DFACE command (6) PFACE command (7) Revolve surface command (8) Tabulated surfaces (9) Ruled surfaces (10) Edge surfaces (11) 3DMESH (12) 3D Standard shaped surface 21-9-3. 3D Solid Modelling 21-9-4. Commands to generate profile based 3D solids (1) VPOINT command (2) UCS command (3) SHADEMODE (4) REGION command (5) EXTRUDE command (6) REVOLVE command (7) BOOLEAN operations (8) 3DARRAY command (9) FILLET on 3D solids (10) CHAMFER on 3D solids (11) ROTATE3D command (12) MIRROR3D command (13) SLICE command 21-10. Three dimensional drawings 21-11. Perspective view in AutoCAD Exercises 21

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