GEOMETRICAL AND MACHINE DRAWING[IN FIRST-ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD]N. D. Bhatt, V. M. PanchalEdition : 20th Edition : 2014 ISBN : 9789380358895 Size : 170 mm × 240 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 408 + 16 = 424` 225.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis text-book follows: (i) the metric system of length measurement and (ii) first-angle method of orthographic projection. However, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. The topics of the subject matter are covered in 22 well-arranged chapters — therein it now contains: * 914 Self–explanatory and neatly drawn diagrams * 230 Worked examples (Problems) * 500 Exercises at the end of chapters * 36 Useful tables It describes in an easy-to-follow style and with application of the principles of orthographic projection, forms, proportions and uses of simple machine, engine and boiler parts. The techniques of freehand sketching, dimensioning, conversion of pictorial views and interpretation of views are treated in clear and simple manner. Most of the orthographic views are accompanied by the pictorial views of the objects to enable the students to visualize the shapes easily. The book covers the syllabi in Engineering Drawing of the First Year of the three year Diploma courses in various branches of Engineering conducted by the Department of Technical Education, for I.T.I. students and also to the candidates reading for the A.M.I.E. and U.P.S.C. Examinations.CONTENT1 : DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES 2 : SHEET LAYOUT AND SKETCHING 3 : LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 4 : SCALES 5 : GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION 6 : CURVES USED IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE 7 : LOCI OF POINTS 8 : PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION 9 : ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 10 : OBLIQUE PROJECTION 11 : CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 12 : SECTIONAL VIEWS 13 : ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR INTERPRETATION OF VIEWS 14 : SCREW THREADS 15 : SCREWED FASTENINGS 16 : KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS, PIN-JOINTS 17 : SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AN BRAKES 18 : PIPE JOINTS 19 : RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 20 : SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS 21 : PULLEYS 22 : ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS IndexGEOMETRICAL AND MACHINE DRAWING Detailed ContentsChapter 1 DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES 1-0. Introduction 1-1. Drawing board 1-2. T-square 1-3. Set-squares 1-4. Drawing instrument box (i) Large-size compass with interchangeable pencil and pen legs (ii) Lengthening bar (iii) Small bow compass (iv) Large-size divider (v) Small bow divider (vi) Small bow ink-pen (vii) Inking pen 1-5. Scales 1-6. Protractor 1-7. French curves 1-8. Drawing papers 1-9. Drawing pencils 1-10. Eraser (Rubber) 1-11. Drawing pins 1-12. Sand-paper block 1-13. Duster 1-14. Drafting machine 1-15. General suggestions for drawing a sheet (i) Cleaning the instruments (ii) Pinning the paper to the drawing board (iii) Border lines, To draw the border lines (iv) Spacing of drawings Exercises I Chapter 2 SHEET LAYOUT AND SKETCHING 2-1. Sheet layout Sheet sizes Margin Border lines Borders and frames Orientation mark Grid reference system Title block List of parts or the bill of materials Revisions of drawing Folding marks Scales and scale drawing 2-2. Types of machine drawings (i) Production drawing (ii) Exploded assembly drawing (iii) Schematic assembly drawing (iv) Drawing for instruction manual (v) Drawing for installation (vi) Drawing for catalogue (vii) Tabular drawing (viii) Patent drawing 2-3. Sketching Sketching materials To sketch straight lines To sketch circles and arcs Sketching procedure Exercises II Chapter 3 LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 3-0. Introduction 3-1. Lines Line thickness Inked drawings Pencil drawings Types of Lines Outlines Margin lines Dimension lines Extension or projection lines Construction lines Hatching or section lines Leader or pointer lines Border lines Short-break lines Long-break lines Hidden or dotted lines Centre lines Cutting-plane lines Chain thick Chain thick double-dashed 3-2. Lettering I. Single-stroke letters II. Gothic letters 3-3. Dimensioning Types of dimensions 3-4. Dimensioning terms and notations Dimension line Extension line Arrowhead Leader 3-5. Placing of dimensions (i) Aligned system (ii) Unidirectional system 3-6. Unit of dimensioning 3-7. General rules for dimensioning 3-8. Practical hints on dimensioning (a) Continuous or chain dimensioning (b) Progressive or parallel dimensioning Exercises III Chapter 4 SCALES 4-0. Introduction 4-1. Scales (i) Engineer’s scale (ii) Graphical scale (iii) Representative fraction 4-2. Scales on drawings 4-3. Types of scales (i) Plain scales (ii) Diagonal scales Principle of diagonal scale (iii) Comparative scales (i) Inch scale (ii) Comparative scale (i) Scale of miles (ii) Scale of kilometres (iv) Vernier scales Principle of vernier Least count of a vernier (i) Forward vernier (ii) Backward vernier (v) Scale of chords Exercises IV Chapter 5 GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION 5-0. Introduction 5-1. Bisecting a line 5-2. To draw perpendiculars 5-3. To draw parallel lines 5-4. To divide a line 5-5. To bisect an angle 5-6. To trisect an angle 5-7. To find the centre of an arc 5-8. To construct equilateral triangles (a) With T-square and set-square only (b) With the aid of a compass 5-9. To construct squares 5-10. To construct regular polygons (a) Inscribe circle method (b) Arc method Alternative method 5-11. Special methods of drawing regular polygons 5-12. Regular polygons inscribed in circles 5-13. To draw regular figures using T-square and set-squares 5-14. To draw tangents (a) External tangents (b) Internal tangents 5-15. Lengths of arcs 5-16. Circles and lines in contact 5-17. Inscribed circles Exercises V Chapter 6 CURVES USED IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE 6-0. Introduction 6-1. Conic sections 6-1-1. Ellipse (a) General method of construction of an ellipse (b) Construction of ellipse by other methods Normal and tangent to an ellipse 6-1-2. Parabola (a) General method of construction of a parabola (b) Construction of parabola by other methods 6-1-3. Hyperbola Rectangular hyperbola General method of construction of a hyperbola 6-1-4. Tangents and normals to conics (a) General method (b) Other methods of drawing tangents to conics 6-2. Cycloidal curves 6-2-1. Cycloid Normal and tangent to a cycloid curve 6-2-2. Trochoid 6-2-3. Epicycloid and hypocycloid Normal and tangent to an epicycloid and a hypocycloid 6-2-4. Epitrochoid 6-2-5. Hypotrochoid 6-3. Involute Normal and tangent to an involute 6-4. Evolutes 6-5. Spirals 6-5-1. Archemedian spiral Normal and tangent to an Archemedian spiral 6-5-2. Logarithmic or equiangular spiral 6-6. Helix 6-6-1. A method of drawing a helical curve 6-6-2. Helical springs (a) Helical spring of a wire of square cross-section (b) Helical spring of a wire of circular cross-section 6-6-3. Screw threads 6-6-4. Helix upon a cone 6-7 Cam Exercises VI Miscellaneous problems Chapter 7 LOCI OF POINTS 7-0. Introduction 7-1. Loci of points 7-2. Simple mechanisms 7-2-1. The slider-crank mechanism 7-2-2. A four-bar mechanism Exercises VII Chapter 8 PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION 8-0 Engineering drawing 8-1. Principle of projection 8-2. Methods of projection 8-3. Orthographic projection 8-3-1. First-angle projection 8-3-2. Third-angle projection B.I.S. code of practice Symbols for methods of projection Combination of two methods 8-4. Isometric projection 8-5. Oblique projection 8-6. Perspective projection Exercises VIII Chapter 9 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 9-0. Introduction 9-1. Isometric axes, lines and planes 9-2. Isometric scale 9-3. Isometric drawing or isometric view 9-4. Isometric graph 9-5. Illustrative problems 9-5-1. Isometric drawing of planes or plane figures I. Method of points II. Four-centre method 9-5-2. Isometric drawing of prisms and pyramids Methods of drawing non-isometric lines (i) Box method (ii) Offset method 9-5-3. Isometric drawing of cylinders 9-5-4. Isometric drawing of cones 9-5-5. Isometric drawing of sphere 9-6. Typical problems Exercises IX Chapter 10 OBLIQUE PROJECTION 10-0. Introduction 10-1. Principle of the oblique projection 10-2. The oblique projection and the isometric projection 10-3. Receding lines and receding angles 10-4. Types of the oblique projection (i) Cavalier projection (ii) Cabinet projection 10-5. Rules for the choice of position of an object 10-6. Steps for drawing the oblique projection Exercises X Chapter 11 CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 11-0. Introduction (i) First-angle projection method (ii) Third-angle projection method 11-1. Orthographic projection 11-2. Procedure for preparing a scale-drawing 11-3. Illustrative problems Exercises XI Solutions to Exercises XI Chapter 12 SECTIONAL VIEWS 12-0. Introduction 12-1. Cutting-plane line 12-2. Types of sectional views 12-2-1. Full section 12-2-2. Half section 12-2-3. Partial or broken section 12-2-4. Revolved section 12-2-5. Removed section 12-2-6. Offset section 12-3. Sectioning conventions 12-4. Hatching or section lines 12-5. Conventions of section lines Illustrative problems Exercises XII Solutions to exercises XII Chapter 13 ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR INTERPRETATION OF VIEWS 13-0. Introduction 13-1. Reading of orthographic views (Blue-print reading) 13-2. Missing lines and missing views 13-3. Identification of planes Exercises XIII Solutions to exercises XIII Chapter 14 SCREW THREADS 14-0. Introduction 14-1. Definitions Crest Root Flank Angle Depth Nominal diameter Outside or major diameter Core or minor diameter Effective diameter Pitch Lead Slope 14-2. Forms of screw threads 14-2-1. Triangular or V threads (a) Unified thread (b) Metric thread (c) Whitworth thread (d) British Standard Fine and British Standard Pipe threads (e) Sellers thread (f) British Association thread 14-2-2. Square thread (a) Acme thread IS: 7008-1988 (b) Knuckle thread (c) Buttress thread 14-3. Conventional representation of threads SP: 46-1988 (a) External threads (b) Internal threads (a) External V thread (b) Internal V thread (c) External square thread (d) Internal square thread 14-4. Multiple-start threads 14-5. Right-hand and left-hand threads Exercises XIV Chapter 15 SCREWED FASTENINGS 15-0. Introduction 15-1. Types of nuts 15-1-1. Hexagonal nut 15-1-2. Square nut 15-2. Types of nuts for special purpose Flanged nut Cap nut Dome nut Cylindrical or capstan nut Ring nut Wing nut 15-3. Washers 15-4. Types of bolts 15-5. Forms of bolts Hexagonal-headed bolt 15-6. Methods of preventing rotation of a bolt while screwing a nut on or off it Square-headed bolt Cylindrical or cheese-headed bolt Cup-headed or round-headed bolt T-headed bolt Countersunk-headed bolt Hook bolt Headless tapered bolt Eye-bolt Lifting eye-bolt Tap-bolt or cap-screw Stud-bolt or stud 15-7. Set-screws 15-8. Locking arrangements for nuts (i) Lock-nut or check-nut (ii) Split-pin (iii) Slotted nut (iv) Castle nut (v) Sawn nut or Wiles nut (vi) Simmond’s lock-nut (vii) Penn, ring or grooved nut (viii) Stop-plate or locking-plate (ix) Spring-washer 15-9. Foundation bolts (i) Eye foundation bolt (ii) Rag bolt (iii) Lewis bolt (iv) Cotter bolt 15-10. Spanner 15-11. Longitudinal or bar stay Exercises XV Chapter 16 KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS, PIN-JOINTS 16-0. Introduction 16-1. Keys joints (i) Taper keys Sunk taper key Saddle keys Round key or pin key Taper pin Gib-head (ii) Parallel or feather keys Spline shafts Woodruff key Cone keys Staking-on 16-2. Cotter and cotter joints (i) Socket and spigot joint (ii) Sleeve joint (iii) Strap joint 16-3. Pin-joint or Knuckle joint Exercises XVI Chapter 17 SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AND BRAKES 17-0. Introduction 17-1. Fast or rigid couplings 17-1-1. Box or muff coupling 17-1-2. Half-lap coupling 17-1-3. Split-muff coupling 17-2. Flanged coupling 17-2-1. Protected type flange-coupling 17-2-2. Solid flanged coupling 17-3. Flexible couplings 17-3-1. Universal coupling or Hook’s joint 17-3-2. Oldham’s coupling 17-3-3. Gear coupling 17-4. Loose or disengaging couplings or clutches 17-4-1. Claw coupling or clutch 17-4-2. Conical friction coupling or cone friction clutch 17-4-3. Single plate clutch 17-5. Brakes Exercises XVII Chapter 18 PIPE JOINTS 18-0. Introduction 18-1. Cast-iron pipes 18-1-1. Cast-iron flanged joint 18-1-2. Socket and spigot joint 18-1-3. Hydraulic joint 18-2. Wrought-iron and steel pipes 18-3. Copper pipes 18-3-1. Union joint 18-4. Lead pipes 18-5. Expansion joints 18-6. Piping drawings Exercises XVIII Chapter 19 RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 19-0. Introduction 19-1. Riveting 19-1-1. Caulking and fullering 19-2. Forms and proportions of rivet-heads 19-3. Failure of riveted joints 19-4. Dimensions of a riveted joint 19-5. Types of riveted joints 19-5-1. Lap joint 19-5-2. Butt joint 19-6. Rolled-steel sections 19-6-1. Connection of plates at right angles 19-6-2. Gusset stay 19-7. Welded joints 19-7-1. Welding 19-7-2. Types of welding process (i) Pressure welding or forge welding (ii) Fusion welding (iii) Fusion and pressure welding Types of welded joints Types of welds 19-7-3. Representation of welded joints Exercises XIX Chapter 20 SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS 20-0. Introduction (i) A journal bearing (ii) A pivot bearing (iii) A collar or thrust bearing 20-1. Journal bearings 20-1-1. Solid bearing 20-1-2. Bushed bearing 20-1-3. Pedestal bearing or plummer block 20-1-4. Methods of preventing rotation of brasses in a bearing 20-2. Pivot bearing 20-2-1. Foot-step bearing 20-3. Wall brackets 20-4. Hangers 20-5. Wall-plates 20-6. Wall-box Exercises XX Chapter 21 PULLEYS 21-0. Introduction 21-1. Types of Pulleys 21-2. C. I. belt pulleys 21-3. Fast and loose pulleys 21-4. Speed cones or stepped pulleys 21-5. Split pulleys 21-6. Built-up pulleys 21-7. Rope pulleys 21-8. V-belt pulleys Exercises XXI Chapter 22 ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS 22-0. Introduction 22-1. Types of assembly drawings (i) Designed assembly (ii) Layout assembly (iii) Installation assembly (iv) Working drawing assembly (v) General assembly 22-2. Accepted norms to be observed for assembly drawings (i) Selection of views (ii) Sectioning (iii) Dotted lines (iv) Dimensions (v) Bill of materials 22-3. Sequences of preparing the assembly drawing Illustrative problems Exercises XXII
About the Book
This text-book follows: (i) the metric system of length measurement and (ii) first-angle method of orthographic projection. However, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. The topics of the subject matter are covered in 22 well-arranged chapters — therein it now contains: * 914 Self–explanatory and neatly drawn diagrams * 230 Worked examples (Problems) * 500 Exercises at the end of chapters * 36 Useful tables It describes in an easy-to-follow style and with application of the principles of orthographic projection, forms, proportions and uses of simple machine, engine and boiler parts. The techniques of freehand sketching, dimensioning, conversion of pictorial views and interpretation of views are treated in clear and simple manner. Most of the orthographic views are accompanied by the pictorial views of the objects to enable the students to visualize the shapes easily. The book covers the syllabi in Engineering Drawing of the First Year of the three year Diploma courses in various branches of Engineering conducted by the Department of Technical Education, for I.T.I. students and also to the candidates reading for the A.M.I.E. and U.P.S.C. Examinations.
1 : DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES 2 : SHEET LAYOUT AND SKETCHING 3 : LINES, LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING 4 : SCALES 5 : GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION 6 : CURVES USED IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE 7 : LOCI OF POINTS 8 : PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTION 9 : ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 10 : OBLIQUE PROJECTION 11 : CONVERSION OF PICTORIAL VIEWS INTO ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS 12 : SECTIONAL VIEWS 13 : ORTHOGRAPHIC READING OR INTERPRETATION OF VIEWS 14 : SCREW THREADS 15 : SCREWED FASTENINGS 16 : KEYS, COTTER-JOINTS, PIN-JOINTS 17 : SHAFT COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES AN BRAKES 18 : PIPE JOINTS 19 : RIVETED JOINTS AND WELDED JOINTS 20 : SHAFT BEARINGS, BRACKETS AND HANGERS 21 : PULLEYS 22 : ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS Index