RAILWAY, BRIDGE AND TUNNEL ENGINEERINGKetki B. DalaLEdition : 2nd Edition : 2016 ISBN : 9789385039133 Size : 170 mm × 240 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 560 + 16 = 576` 350.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis book aims at presenting the topics of Railway, Bridge and Tunnel Engineering written in a simple manner. The subject-matter is characterized by comprehension as well as methodical and easy-to-follow style. The Section I: Railway Engineering is well divided in to Thirteen chapters including Introduction; Railway track gauges; Surveys and alignment of railway lines; Railway traction; Rails; Sleepers; Ballast; Track fittings; Geometric design of a track; Resistance to traction; Points and crossings; Railway stations and yards; Signalling and interlocking; etc. The Section II: Bridge Engineering is well divided in to Nine chapters including Introduction; Bridge foundations; Sub-structures; Classification of bridges; Bridge flooring; Bridge bearings; Design of bridges; Construction and erection methods of bridge super-structure; Maintenance of the bridges; etc. The Section III: Tunnel Engineering is well divided in to Nine chapters including General aspects of tunnelling; Alignment of a tunnel; Shafts and portals; Tunnelling in hard rock; Tunnelling in soft ground; Tunnel lining; Lighting, ventilation and dust control in tunnels; Drainage of tunnels; Safety in tunnel construction; etc. The Appendix I gives Abbreviated Terms and Appendix II gives five solved examination papers of GTU. Salient features of this book are: * 346 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches; * 32 Illustrative problems; * 40 Important useful tables; *590 Typical questions at the end of the chapters. The text-matter has been arranged systematically according to the curriculum developed by the Gujarat Technological University (G.T.U.) for the Sixth Semester students of Civil Engineering (Subject code: 160603) and also it should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove great of interest and practical use to the practising professionals.CONTENTSECTION I: RAILWAY ENGINEERING 1 : INTRODUCTION 2 : RAILWAY TRACK GAUGES 3 : SURVEYS AND ALIGNMENT OF RAILWAY LINES 4 : RAILWAY TRACTION 5 : RAILS 6 : SLEEPERS 7 : BALLAST 8 : TRACK FITTINGS 9 : GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF A TRACK 10 : RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 11 : POINTS AND CROSSINGS 12 : RAILWAY STATIONS AND YARDS 13 : SIGNALLING AND INTERLOCKING SECTION II : BRIDGE ENGINEERING 14 : INTRODUCTION 15 : BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS 16 : SUB-STRUCTURES 17 : CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES 18 : BRIDGE FLOORING 19 : BRIDGE BEARINGS 20 : DESIGN OF BRIDGES 21 : CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION METHODS OF BRIDGE SUPER-STRUCTURE 22 : MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES SECTION III: TUNNEL ENGINEERING 23 : GENERAL ASPECTS OF TUNNELLING 24 : ALIGNMENT OF A TUNNEL 25 : SHAFTS AND PORTALS 26 : TUNNELLING IN HARD ROCK 27 : TUNNELLING IN SOFT GROUND 28 : TUNNEL LINING 29 : LIGHTING, VENTILATION AND DUST CONTROL IN TUNNELS 30 : DRAINAGE OF TUNNELS 31 : SAFETY IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION APPENDICES Appendix I ABBREVIATED TERMS Appendix II GTU EXAMINATION PAPERS INDEXRAILWAY, BRIDGE AND TUNNEL ENGINEERING Detailed ContentsSection I : RAILWAY ENGINEERING Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1. Brief history of railways 1-2. Importance of railways 1-3. Trends in modern railways 1-4. Trains of tomorrow (Maglev Trains) 1-5. Automatic train operation 1-6. Indian railways 1-7. Development of the Indian railway 1-8. Classification of Indian Railways 1-9. Achievements of Indian Railways 1-10. Future plan of indian railways QUESTIONS 1 Chapter 2 RAILWAY TRACK GAUGES 2-1. Definition of gauge of track 2-2. Factors affecting the choice of a gauge 2-3. Types of gauges 2-4. Uniformity in gauges 2-5. Loading gauge 2-6. Construction gauge 2-7. Track capacity 2-8. Electrification on the Indian railways QUESTIONS 2 Chapter 3 SURVEYS AND ALIGNMENT OF RAILWAY LINES 3-1. Reasons for laying a new railway line 3-2. Factors influencing the proposed route 3-3-1. Reconnaissance survey 3-3-2. Preliminary survey 3-3-3. Location survey 3-3-4. Railway Electrification Survey 3-4. Project report and drawings 3-5. Construction of new lines QUESTIONS 3 Chapter 4 RAILWAY TRACTION 4-1. Tractive effort of a locomotive 4-2. Track stresses QUESTIONS 4 Chapter 5 RAILS 5-1. Permanent way and its requirements 5-2. Functions of rails 5-3. Requirements of an ideal rail 5-4. Types of rails 5-5. Steel for rails 5-6. Weight and section of rails 5-7. Marking on rails 5-8. Corrugated or roaring rails 5-9. Corrosion of rails 5-10. Length of rail 5-11. Welding of rails 5-12. Wear of rails 5-13. Methods adopted to reduce wear of rails 5-14. Measuring wear of rails 5-15. Renewal of rails 5-16. Failure of rails 5-17. Coning of wheels 5-18. Hogged rails 5-19. Buckling 5-20. Creep of rails 5-20-1. Causes of creep 5-20-2. Factors determining magnitude of creep 5-20-3. Results of creep 5-20-4. Method of measuring the creep 5-20-5. Methods of correcting the creep QUESTIONS 5 Chapter 6 SLEEPERS 6-1. Functions of sleepers 6-2. Types of sleepers 6-3. Requirements of an ideal material for sleeper 6-4. Materials for cross-sleepers 6-5. Sleeper density QUESTIONS 6 Chapter 7 BALLAST 7-1. Functions of ballast 7-2. Requirements of an ideal material for ballast 7-3. Materials used as ballast 7-4. Size and quantity of ballast 7-5. Screening of ballast QUESTIONS 7 Chapter 8 TRACK FITTINGS 8-1. Rail joints 8-2. Avoidance of rail joints 8-3. Types of rail joints 8-4. Requirements of an ideal fastening 8-5. Fastenings for rails 8-6. Fish-plates 8-7. Spikes, fang-bolts and hook-bolts 8-7-1. Spikes 8-7-2. Fang-bolts 8-7-3. Hook-bolts 8-8. Chairs and keys 8-9. Bearing-plates QUESTIONS 8 Chapter 9 GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF A TRACK 9-1. Objections to curvature of track 9-2. Designation of a curve 9-3. Types of curves and limiting radius or degree of curvature 9-4. Transition curves 9-5. Super-elevation or cant 9-6. Factors affecting super-elevation 9-7. Speed of trains on curves 9-8. Cant Deficiency and Negative super-elevation 9-9. Cant Excess 9-10. Grade compensation on curves 9-11. Bending of rails on curves 9-12. Cutting of rails on curves 9-13. Widening gauge on curves 9-14. Spirals for mountain railways 9-15. Switch-backs 9-16. Rack railways 9-17. String-lining of curves 9-18. Tilting train QUESTIONS 9 Chapter 10 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 10-1. Train resistances 10-2. Rolling stock 10-2-1. Locomotives 10-2-2. Coaches 10-2-3. Wagons 10-3. Train-brakes 10-4. Dynamometer car QUESTIONS 10 Chapter 11 POINTS AND CROSSINGS 11-1. Purpose 11-2. Some definitions 11-3. Sleepers laid for points and crossings 11-4. Steel for points and crossings 11-5. Switches 11-6. Shapes of switches 11-7. Length of stock rails and tongue rails 11-8. Heel divergence or heel clearance 11-9. Switch angle 11-10. Throw of switch 11-11. Crossings 11-12. Types of crossings 11-13. Theoretical nose of crossing (T.N.C.) and actual nose of crossing (A.N.C.) 11-14. Crossing clearance 11-15. Crossing number 11-16. Crossing angle 11-17. Different types of leads and their calculations 11-18. Laying of points and crossings 11-19. Maintenance of points and crossings 11-20. Combinations of points and crossings 11-20-1. Cross-overs 11-20-2. Scissors cross-overs 11-20-3. Slips 11-20-4. Fixed point 11-20-5. Three throws 11-20-6. Tandems or double turnouts 11-20-7. Gathering lines or ladder tracks 11-20-8. Gauntlet tracks 11-20-9. Double junctions QUESTIONS 11 Chapter 12 RAILWAY STATIONS AND YARDS 12-1. General 12-2. Definition of a station 12-3. Purposes of a railway station 12-4. Selection of site for a railway station 12-5. Facilities required at railway stations 12-6. Classification of stations 12-6-1. Operational classification 12-6-2. Functional classification 12-7. Platforms 12-8. Staff quarters 12-9. Goods traffic at wayside stations 12-10. Catch sidings 12-11. Definition of a yard 12-12. Types of yards 12-12-1. Passenger yards 12-12-2. Goods yards 12-12-3. Marshalling yards 12-12-4. Locomotive yards 12-13. Level-crossing 12-14. Ash-pits, ash-pans and examination pits 12-15. Drop pits 12-16. Water columns 12-17. Triangles 12-18. Turntables QUESTIONS 12 Chapter 13 SIGNALLING AND INTERLOCKING 13-1. Objects of signalling 13-2. Classification of signals 13-2-1. Classification according to function 13-2-2. Classification according to location 13-2-3. Special signals 13-3. Typical layouts 13-4. Interlocking 13-4-1. Essential principles of interlocking 13-4-2. Methods of interlocking 13-4-3. Slotting of signals 13-4-4. Detectors 13-4-5. Point lock and treadle or lock bar 13-4-6. Interlocking of level-crossings 13-4-7. Interlocking standards 13-4-8. Improvements in interlocking and signalling QUESTIONS 13 Section II : BRIDGE ENGINEERING Chapter 14 INTRODUCTION 14-1. General 14-2. Importance of bridges 14-3. Identification of bridges 14-4. Requirements of an Ideal Bridge 14-5. Selection of bridge site 14-6. Preliminary data to be collected for bridge project 14-7. Stages of investigation 14-8. Preliminary and final project drawings 14-9. Choice of bridge type 14-10. Components of a bridge 14-11. Approaches of bridge 14-12. Economic span of a bridge 14-13. Number of spans of a bridge 14-14. Afflux 14-15. Clearance and freeboard 14-16. Maximum flood discharge or High flood level (H.F.L.) 14-17. Length of a bridge 14-18. Grip length 14-19. Linear waterway of a bridge 14-20. Bridge alignment 14-21. Joints of bridge 14-22. Handrails 14-23. River training works QUESTIONS 14 Chapter 15 BRIDGE FOUNDATIONS 15-1. General 15-2. Essential requirements of a good foundation 15-3. General principles of design of bridge foundations 15-4. Subsoil exploration 15-5. Testing of soil samples 15-6. Types of foundations 15-7. Spread foundations 15-8. Pile foundations 15-9. Caissons and Cofferdams 15-9-1. Classification of caissons 15-9-2. Materials used for the construction of caissons 15-9-3. Requirements of a cofferdam 15-9-4. Uses of caissons 15-9-5. Uses of cofferdams 15-9-6. Types of cofferdams 15-9-7. Prevention of leakage in cofferdams 15-9-8. Factors affecting design of a cofferdam 15-9-9. Difference between cofferdam and caisson QUESTIONS 15 Chapter 16 SUB-STRUCTURES 16-1. General 16-2. Abutments 16-3. Piers 16-4. Wing walls 16-5. Setting out for piers and abutments 16-6. Materials for sub-structures 16-7. Bridge inspection QUESTIONS 16 Chapter 17 CLASSIFICATION OF BRIDGES 17-1. Introduction 17-2. Classification of bridges 17-3. Classification of bridges according to material used 17-4. Classification of bridges according to the position of bridge floor 17-5. Classification of bridges according to the inter span relations 17-6. Classification of bridges according to the form or type of super-structure 17-7. Classification of bridges according to the method of clearance for navigation (Movable bridges) 17-8. Classification of bridges according to the length of span or as per linear waterway 17-9. Classification of bridges according to the road level relative to highest flood level (H.F.L.) 17-10. Classification of bridges according to life or expected period of service of super-structure 17-10-1. Bridges with intermediate supports 17-10-2. Bridges without intermediate supports 17-10-3. Floating bridges 17-11. Classification of bridges according to flexibility of super-structure 17-12. Classification of bridges according to the alignment 17-13. Classification of bridges according to level of crossing of highways and railways 17-14. Classification of bridges according to method of connections adopted for different parts of super-structure 17-15. Classification of bridges according to the function of a bridge 17-16. Classification of bridges according to the degree of redundancy 17-17. Classification of bridges according to the loading QUESTIONS 17 Chapter 18 BRIDGE FLOORING 18-1. General 18-2. Factors affecting the choice of flooring material 18-3. Requirements of a good flooring material 18-4. Types of floors 18-5. Flooring materials 18-6. Drainage of floors QUESTIONS 18 Chapter 19 BRIDGE BEARINGS 19-1. Definition 19-2. Purposes or functions of bearings 19-3. Importance of bearings 19-4. Free and fixed bearings 19-5. Types of bearings 19-6. Materials for bearings 19-7. Bed blocks 19-8. Maintenance of bearings QUESTIONS 19 Chapter 20 DESIGN OF BRIDGES 20-1. General 20-2. Buoyancy pressure 20-3. Centrifugal forces 20-4. Dead load 20-5. Deformation stresses 20-6. Earth pressure 20-7. Erection stresses 20-8. Impact load 20-9. Live load 20-10. Longitudinal forces 20-11. Secondary stresses 20-12. Seismic load 20-13. Temperature variation forces 20-14. Water pressure 20-15. Wind load 20-16. Design of bridge foundations 20-17. Forces acting on different components of a bridge QUESTIONS 20 Chapter 21 CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION METHODS OF BRIDGE SUPER-STRUCTURE 21-1. General 21-2. Erection of steel girders 21-3. Erection of steel truss bridges 21-4. Erection of suspension bridges 21-5. Construction of pre-stressed concrete super-structure 21-6. Erection of R.C.C. and pre-stressed girder bridges 21-7. Formwork for arch bridges QUESTIONS 21 Chapter 22 MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES 22-1. General 22-2. Deterioration of bridges 22-3. Bridge Failures 22-4. Defects of bridges and their rectification 22-5. Inspection of bridges 22-6. Posting of bridges 22-7. Rating of existing bridges 22-8. Rebuilding of bridges 22-9. Testing and strengthening of bridges 22-10. Maintenance of the bridges QUESTIONS 22 Section III: TUNNEL ENGINEERING Chapter 23 GENERAL ASPECTS OF TUNNELLING 23-1. General 23-2. Advantages and disadvantages of tunnelling 23-3. Advantages and disadvantages of open cuts 23-4. Alignment of a tunnel 23-5. Classification of tunnels 23-6. Shape of tunnels 23-7. Size of tunnels 23-8. Problems in tunnelling QUESTIONS 23 Chapter 24 ALIGNMENT OF A TUNNEL 24-1. Investigations for tunnel site 24-2. Setting out or alignment of tunnel 24-3. Excavation 24-4. Excavation of tunnels in rock with machines 24-5. Blasting QUESTIONS 24 Chapter 25 SHAFTS AND PORTALS 25-1. General 25-2. Advantages of shafts 25-3. Size of shafts 25-4. Location of shafts 25-5. Classification of shafts 25-6. Construction of shafts in rock 25-7. Construction of shaft in soft ground 25-8. Precautions for shaft sinking work in soft soil 25-9. Protection round the shaft opening 25-10. Portals 25-11. Twin tunnels QUESTIONS 25 Chapter 26 TUNNELLING IN HARD ROCK 26-1. General 26-2. Sequence of operations for tunnelling in rock 26-3. Faces of attack for tunnelling in rock 26-4. Methods of tunnelling in rock 26-5. Mucking 26-6. Hauling 26-7. Safety precautions in rock tunnelling QUESTIONS 26 Chapter 27 TUNNELLING IN SOFT GROUND 27-1. Soil classification 27-2. Choice of method 27-3. Methods of tunnelling in soft ground 27-4. Forepoling method 27-5. Needle beam method 27-6. Army method or case method 27-7. American method 27-8. English method 27-9. Belgian method 27-10. German method 27-11. Austrian method 27-12. Liner plates method 27-13. Shield tunnelling 27-13-1. Dimensions of shield 27-13-2. Parts of shield 27-13-3. Terms used with shield 27-13-4. Primary lining 27-13-5. General steps of tunnelling with shield 27-13-6. Shield tunnelling in different types of soils 27-13-7. Common Equipments with shield 27-13-8. Stages of using the shield 27-14. Timbering in soft soil tunnelling QUESTIONS 27 Chapter 28 TUNNEL LINING 28-1. Necessity of lining 28-2. Objects of lining 28-3. Materials for lining 28-4. Sequence of lining a tunnel QUESTIONS 28 Chapter 29 LIGHTING, VENTILATION AND DUST CONTROL IN TUNNELS 29-1. Tunnel lighting 29-1-1. Spacing of lights 29-1-2. Types of tunnel lights 29-2. Ventilation in tunnels 29-2-1. Objects of tunnel ventilation 29-2-2. Requirements of tunnel ventilation 29-2-3. Volume of air required 29-2-4. Methods of ventilation 29-2-5. Equipments for ventilation 29-2-6. Permanent ventilation 29-3. Dust control QUESTIONS 29 Chapter 30 DRAINAGE OF TUNNELS 30-1. General 30-2. Pre-drainage 30-3. Dewatering (Temporary drainage) 30-4. Pumping (Temporary drainage) 30-5. Permanent drainage QUESTIONS 30 Chapter 31 SAFETY IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION 31-1. General 31-2. Safety precautions in tunnelling 31-3. Health protection QUESTIONS 31 APPENDICES Appendix I ABBREVIATED TERMS Appendix II GTU EXAMINATION PAPERS INDEX
About the Book
This book aims at presenting the topics of Railway, Bridge and Tunnel Engineering written in a simple manner. The subject-matter is characterized by comprehension as well as methodical and easy-to-follow style. The Section I: Railway Engineering is well divided in to Seventeen chapters including Introduction to Railway Engineering; Rail Gauges; Surveys and Alignment of Railway Lines; Railway Traction; Rails; Creep; Rail Fastenings; Geometric Design of a Track; Resistance to Traction; Points and Crossings; Signalling; Interlocking; Station Machinery; etc. The Section II: Bridge Engineering is well divided in to Twelve chapters including Introduction to Bridge Engineering; Foundations - I: Pile Foundation; Foundations - II: Caissons and Cofferdams; Substructures; Fixed-Span Superstructures; Low Cost Bridges: Movable-Span Superstructures; Low Cost Bridges: Culverts and Causeways; Low Cost Bridges: Timber or Temporary Bridges; Flooring; Bearings; Erection, Maintenance and Strengthening of Bridges; Miscellaneous Topics; etc. The Section III: Tunnel Engineering is well divided in to Ten chapters including General Aspects of Tunnelling; Stages in Tunnel Construction; Tunnelling in Soft Ground; Tunnelling in Hard Rock; Shield Tunnelling; Shafts and Portals; Tunnel Lining; Lighting, Ventilation and Dust Control in Tunnels; Drainage of Tunnels; Safety in Tunnel Construction; etc. The 2 Appendices give Abbreviated Terms and also Model Question Papers. Salient features of this book are:488 self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches; 35 illustrative problems; 41 important useful tables; 626 typical questions at the end of the chapters. The text-matter has been arranged systematically according to the curriculum developed by the Gujarat Technological University (G.T.U.) for the Sixth Semester students of Civil Engineering (Subject code: 160603) and also it should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove great of interest and practical use to the practicing professionals.
Section I : Railway engineering 1 : INTRODUCTION to railway engineering 2 : Rail Gauges 3 : Surve ys and alignment of railway lines 4 : Railway Traction 5 : Rails 6 : Creep 7 : Sleepers 8 : Ballast 9 : Rail Fastenings 10 : ge ometric design of a track 11 : Resista nce to traction 12 : Points and Crossings 13 : Combinati ons of Points and Crossings 14 : Stati ons and Yards 15 : Signalling 16 : Interlocking 17 : Stati on Machinery Section II : bridge engineering 18 : INTRODUCTION to bridge engineering 19 : f oundati ons – I: Spread and pile foundati on 20 : f oundati ons - II: CAISSONS AND COFFERDAMS 21 : substructures 22 : Fixed-spa n superstructures 23 : Low cost bridges: movable -spa n superstructures 24 : LOW COST BRIDGES: CULVERTS AND CAUSEWAYS 25 : LOW COST BRIDGES: TIMBER OR temporary bridges 26 : fl ooring 27 : BEARINGS 28 : erecti on, Maintenance and strengthening of bridges 29 : miscella neous topics Section III : TUNNEL ENGINEERING 30 : ge neral aspects of Tunnelling 31 : stages in tunnel construction 32 : tu nnelling in soft ground 33 : tu nnelling in hard rock 34 : Shield Tunnelling 35 : SHAFTS AND PORTALS 36 : TUNNEL LINING 37 : LIGHTING, VENTILATION AND DUST CONTROL IN TUNNELS 38 : DRAINAGE OF TUNNELS 39 : SAFETY IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION Appendix I : ABBREVIATED TERMS Appendix II : MODEL QUESTION PAPERS