DOCK AND HARBOUR ENGINEERINGHasmukh P. Oza, Gautam H. OzaEdition : 8th Edition : 2016 ISBN : 9789385039256 Size : 170 mm x 235 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 384 + 24 = 408` 250.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis book is an outcome of extensive experience in design office and of construction. Both the authors have been actively associated with academics as well. The book deals with all the normal port aspects in a holistic way. Topics, such as “Ship Features”, “Traffic Forecasting and Hinterland”, “Cargo Handling Equipment”, “Construction Materials” etc. are essential back-ground knowledge for any dock and harbour engineer. These too have been covered. For easy reading, the book is divided into self-contained chapters dealing with each topic. It contains useful tables of data and is profusely illustrated with diagrams and photographs to assist the reader. Fundamental concepts are lucidly presented and derived and empirical formulae given with clarity of underlying assumptions. Two case histories have been added in this Revised Edition. One is design of a waterfront structure, a Berth or a Wharf. It gives the exact procedure that was followed while designing a waterfront structure viz. a berth, in a professional practice. The aim in presenting this “case” is to acquaint the readers to almost all the aspects of a berth, with emphasis on the design. Almost all the design calculations along with the stress/force diagrams are included. The second “case” is of another waterfront structure, a Sea Water Intake Station. The salient information for determining the guiding dimensional parameters of such a sea water intake station is given. These are meant for the students with inquisitive minds and the practicing engineers seeking guidance when faced with not so usual problems. Other cogent information has been included in the form of Appendices. Some of these are: “Ships for LPG – LNG and Other Bulk Liquids”, “Properties of Liquids and Liquefied Gases”, “Details of Selected Ships”, “Coastal Regulation Zone” and “Port Charges”. These should be useful to the students as well as to the practicing engineers. The book comprehensively covers the subject for degree courses in engineering of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. Written in a simple language, with illustrative references, it will be useful to students to grasp the subject and practising engineers in designing.CONTENT1 : SEA AND TIDES 2 : HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS AND CHARTS 3 : WINDS, WAVES AND CYCLONES 4 : SILTATION AND EROSION 5 : INVESTIGATIONS AND MODEL TESTS 6 : SHIP FEATURES RELATED TO PORT PLANNING 7 : TRAFFIC FORECASTING AND HINTERLAND 8 : HARBOUR LAYOUT 9 : CHANNEL, BASIN AND BERTHS 10 : BREAKWATERS 11 : WHARVES 12 : JETTIES, DOLPHINS AND MOORINGS 13 : BERTHS FOR CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 14 : RO-RO FERRY SERVICE 15 : LOCKS 16 : SHORE PROTECTION WORKS 17 : DRY DOCKS AND SLIPWAYS 18 : CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT 19 : APRONS, TRANSIT SHEDS AND WAREHOUSES 20 : SUPPORTING FACILITIES AND ANCILLARIES 21 : NAVIGATIONAL AIDS 22 : DREDGING AND DREDGERS 23 : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS 24 : DESIGN OF A BERTH (WHARF) – A CASE STUDY 25 : SEA WATER INTAKE STATION – A CASE STUDY APPENDIX I : SHIPS FOR LPG - LNG AND OTHER BULK LIQUIDS APPENDIX II : PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND LIQUEFIED GASES APPENDIX III : EXPLOSIVES AND HAZARDOUS CARGOES APPENDIX IV : DETAILS OF SELECTED SHIPS APPENDIX V : COASTAL REGULATION ZONE (CRZ) APPENDIX VI : GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BERTHS AS PER IS:4651 APPENDIX VII : PORT CHARGES APPENDIX VIII : ANGLES OF INTERNAL FRICTION, UNIT WEIGHTS AND LIQUIDITY FACTORS OF SOME MATERIALS APPENDIX IX : METRIC CONVERSIONS APPENDIX X : BRITISH AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS APPENDIX XI : SI UNITS APPENDIX XII : SOME RELEVANT INDIAN STANDARDS REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSDOCK AND HARBOUR ENGINEERING Detailed ContentsChapter 1 SEA AND TIDES 1-1 Tides 1-2 Tidal Levels and Changes in Sounding Datum Changes on Coast Changes in an Estuary or River 1-3 Tidal Theories 1-4 Tide Tables 1-5 Bores 1-6 Tidal Streams Exercise 1 Chapter 2 HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS AND CHARTS 2-1 Triangulation 2-2 Sounding Lines 2-3 Sextant, Station Pointer and Hi-Fix 2-4 Instruments for Sounding 2-5 Remote Sensing 2-6 Current Observations 2-7 Charts Exercise 2 Chapter 3 WINDS, WAVES AND CYCLONES 3-1 Winds 3-2 Waves 3-3 Significant Wave 3-4 Energy of Waves 3-5 Water Pressure 3-6 Cyclones Exercise 3 Chapter 4 SILTATION AND EROSION 4-1 Due to Wind 4-2 Due to Waves 4-3 Due to Tides 4-4 Littoral Drift 4-5 Erosion Exercise 4 Chapter 5 INVESTIGATIONS AND MODEL TESTS 5-1 Surveys 5-2 Meteorological Data 5-3 Oceanographic Data 5-4 Geological Data 5-5 Soil Investigation 5-6 Seismic Data 5-7 Model Testing 5-8 Local Resources Exercise 5 Chapter 6 SHIP FEATURES RELATED TO PORT PLANNING 6-1 Trends in Shipping 6-2 Ship Types 6-3 Hovercraft 6-4 Hydrofoil Boat 6-5 Multi-Hull Ship 6-6 Other Ships 6-7 Barges for Lighterage Working 6-8 World Shipping 6-9 Shipping Terminology 6-10 Ship Terms 6-11 Tonnage Relations 6-12 Design Ship 6-13 Ship Dimensions 6-14 Ship’s Gear 6-15 Special Features 6-16 Ship Costs Exercise 6 Chapter 7 TRAFFIC FORECASTING AND HINTERLAND 7-1 Hinterland 7-2 Traffic 7-3 Traffic Through GMB Ports 7-4 Growth Rates and Five Year Plans 7-5 Likely Trends 7-6 Traffic Forecasting 7-7 Methods of Forecasting Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods 7-8 Trend Analysis 7-9 Traffic Forecasting by Curve Fitting and Method of Least Squares Fitting a Straight Line (The Least Square Line) Fitting a Parabola (The Least Square Parabola) Exercise 7 Chapter 8 HARBOUR LAYOUT 8-1 Harbour Types 8-2 Port Terms 8-3 Site Selection 8-4 Features of a Harbour Harbour Entrance Approach Channel Turning Basin Sheltered Basin Breakwaters Wharves and Quays Jetties and Piers Lock and Locked Basin Dry Docks and Slipways Ancillaries 8-5 Harbour Planning 8-6 Layout Exercise 8 Chapter 9 CHANNEL, BASIN AND BERTHS 9-1 Channel Approach Channel Channel Alignment Curves Stopping Distance 9-2 Ship Motions 9-3 Harbour Entrance Channel Depth Illustration Channel Width Manoeuvring Lane Bank Clearance Lane Width of Ship Clearance 9-4 Harbour Entrance Width 9-5 Harbour Basin Depth of Basin Berthing Length and Width Passage and Manoeuvring Area 9-6 Turning Basin 9-7 Anchorage and Off Shore Moorings 9-8 Berths Exercise 9 Chapter 10 BREAKWATERS 10-1 Vertical Wall Breakwaters 10-2 Design of Vertical Wall Breakwater 10-3 Rubble Mound Breakwater 10-4 Breakwater Pierheads 10-5 Breakwater Height 10-6 Breakwater Failures 10-7 Floating Breakwater Exercise 10 Chapter 11 WHARVES 11-1 Gravity Walls Dimensions of Wall 11-2 Slip Circles 11-3 Cross-Section of Wall 11-4 Masonry or Mass Concrete Wall 11-5 Wall on Wells 11-6 Wall of Precast Blocks 11-7 Considerations in Designing Wharf on Wells 11-8 Sheet Pile Walls Driving of Sheet Piles Illustrative Types Exercise 11 Chapter 12 JETTIES, DOLPHINS AND MOORINGS 12-1 Piles Timber Piles Steel Piles Precast R.C.C. Piles Pile Shoes Single Pile and a Group of Piles Load Capacity of a Pile Raker Piles, Bracings and the Deck 12-2 Berthing of Ships 12-3 Fenders Fender Types 12-4 Docking and Mooring Forces 12-5 Stresses due to Waves 12-6 Jetty Alignment 12-7 Dolphins 12-8 Pierheads 12-9 Moorings 12-10 Floating Moorings Buoy Cables Anchors 12-11 Pontoon – Wharves and Piers Exercise 12 Chapter 13 BERTHS FOR CRUDE OIL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 13-1 Liquid Cargo Terminals – Oil Terminals 13-2 Berth With Breasting and Mooring Dolphins 13-3 Single Buoy Mooring (SBM) Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring (CALM) Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) 13-4 A Single Buoy Mooring (SBM) 13-5 Other System – Platform Mooring Exercise 13 Chapter 14 RO-RO FERRY SERVICE 14-1 Roll-On-Roll-Off Concept 14-2 Truck Traffic 14-3 Other Factors Affecting RO-RO Ferry Service Voyage Scheduling Contract Booking Collection of Octroi Duty Insurance Applicable Acts 14-4 Requirements at Ports 14-5 Future Alternative 14-6 Costs Involved 14-7 Facilities at Mumbai (Bombay) 14-8 Evaluation of RO-RO Ferry Service Exercise 14 Chapter 15 LOCKS 15-1 Gates 15-2 Passages 15-3 Ebb Gates Exercise 15 Chapter 16 SHORE PROTECTION WORKS 16-1 Seawalls, Bulkheads and Revetments 16-2 Protective Beaches or Spending Beaches 16-3 Sand Dunes 16-4 Groynes Permeable Groynes High and Low Groynes Adjustable Groynes 16-5 Off Shore Breakwaters Exercise 16 Chapter 17 DRY DOCKS AND SLIPWAYS 17-1 Repair Arrangements 17-2 Dry Dock 17-3 Floating Dry Dock 17-4 Slipway and Marine Railway Usefulness of the Slipway 17-5 Shiplift 17-6 Syncrolift Exercise 17 Chapter 18 CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENT 18-1 Main Types 18-2 General Cargo Equipment Quay Crane To Clarify the Terminology Mobile Crane Forklift Truck Other Machines 18-3 Bulk Cargo Equipment Loading Equipment Discharging Equipment 18-4 Container Equipment 18-5 RO-RO Link Span Exercise 18 Chapter 19 APRONS, TRANSIT SHEDS AND WAREHOUSES 19-1 Aprons 19-2 Transit Sheds 19-3 Warehouses Exercise 19 Chapter 20 SUPPORTING FACILITIES AND ANCILLARIES 20-1 Supporting Facilities Railways Roads Air-Communication Telecommunication Fresh Water Supply Power Supply 20-2 Ancillaries Fire Protective Measures Harbour Crafts Internal Roads, Rail Tracks and Pavements Port Office, Rest Rooms, Canteen Housing and Others Exercise 20 Chapter 21 NAVIGATIONAL AIDS 21-1 Classification and General General Lights Local Lights 21-2 Lighthouses 21-3 Lightships 21-4 Buoys 21-5 Buoyage Systems Starboard Hand Buoys Port Hand Buoys Middle Ground Buoys Mid-Channel Buoys Isolated Danger Buoys Miscellaneous Buoys 21-6 Fixed Lights 21-7 Leading Lights Exercise 21 Chapter 22 DREDGING AND DREDGERS 22-1 General 22-2 Bucket-Ladder Dredger 22-3 Grab Dredger 22-4 Dipper Dredger 22-5 Hydraulic Dredger 22-6 Rock-Breaker 22-7 Hopper Barge 22-8 Pipe Line Exercise 22 Chapter 23 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS 23-1 Materials Timber Bricks and Stones Structural Steel Concrete 23-2 Methods Exercise 23 Chapter 24 DESIGN OF A BERTH (WHARF) – A CASE STUDY 24-1 Introduction 24-2 Berth – Wharf 24-3 Design Design Criteria Earth Pressure Coefficients Retaining Wall From +7.0 to +3.0 M Twin-Well – Retaining Wall +3.0 M to –14.5 M Tieback Slab and Tieback Wall or Deadman Gap Closing Between Two Wells Other Features The Ramp 24-4 Miscellaneous Details Chapter 25 SEA WATER INTAKE STATION – A CASE STUDY 25-1 Introduction 25-2 Study of Tide Tables 25-3 Average Pumping Hours Per Day 25-4 Number of Pumps and Header Size 25-5 Design Parameters for Structure 25-6 Salient Information 25-7 Structure and System RCC Intake Station – Covered Platform for Installing the Pumps Piled Approach Trestle 25-8 Figures and Photographs Appendix I SHIPS FOR LPG – LNG AND OTHER BULK LIQUIDS AI-1 LPG Ships Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Pressurised Ships Semi-Pressurised cum Semi-Refrigerated Ships Refrigerated Ship – Cargo at Atmospheric Pressures AI-2 LNG Ships Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Ships Boil-Off from Tanks and its Disposal AI-3 LPG and LNG Loading/Unloading System AI-4 Other Liquid Chemical Cargoes Liquid Ammonia Phosphoric Acid Elemental Phosphorous Molten Sulphur AI-5 Other Liquids Vegetable Oils Molasses AI-6 Special Liquids Tankers AI-7 Transportation Costs Appendix II PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND LIQUEFIED GASES Appendix III EXPLOSIVES AND HAZARDOUS CARGOES Appendix IV DETAILS OF SELECTED SHIPS Appendix V COASTAL REGULATION ZONE (CRZ) AV-1 Conservation of Coastal Zones AV-2 Coastal Regulation Zones – Guidelines Prohibited Activities Regulation of Permissible Activities AV-3 Coastal Area Classification and Development Regulations Category-I (CRZ-I) Category-II (CRZ-II) Category-III (CRZ-III) Category-IV (CRZ-IV) AV-4 Norms for Regulation of Activities CRZ-I CRZ-II CRZ-III CRZ-IV Appendix VI GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BERTHS AS PER IS:4651 AVI-1 Location and Form AVI-2 Required Features AVI-3 General Cargo Berths AVI-4 Tanker Berths AVI-5 Explosive Berths AVI-6 Fire Protection Appendix VII PORT CHARGES AVII-1 Fees Levied on Ships and Vessels AVII-2 Pilotage Charges AVII-3 Berth Hire AVII-4 Fees on Cargo Landed or Shipped Appendix VIII ANGLES OF INTERNAL FRICTION, UNIT WEIGHTS AND LIQUIDITY FACTOR OF SOME MATERIALS Appendix IX METRIC CONVERSIONS Appendix X BRITISH AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS Appendix XI SI UNITS Appendix XII SOME RELEVANT INDIAN STANDARDS REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INDEX
About the Book
This text-book concisely formulates the basic principles of the subject matter in simple language presented in two sections. The Section I — Harbour and Dock Engineering, is well-divided in twelve chapters including chapter on ‘Planning and Layout of Ports’. Also the approach of the write-up has been changed according to the form of facilities and requirements of Harbours and Ports. The Section II — Tunnel Engineering, is also well-divided in twelve chapters including newly developed methods like New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM), Shield methods and chapters on ‘Stages in Tunnel Construction’, ‘Tunnelling in Water Bearing Soils’ and also ‘Health Protection in Tunnels’ have been incorporated. Salient features of this book: * 230 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches, photographs and more than, * 310 Examination questions at the end of each chapter. T he book in the present form will prove to be extremely useful to the students preparing for the Degree examinations in Civil Engineering of all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S., and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also be of an immense use to practising Civil Engineers.
Section I : HARBOUR AND DOCK ENGINEERING 1 : HARBOURS AND PORTS 2 : N ATURAL PHENOMENA : TIDES, WIND AND WAVES 3 : PROTECTION FACILITIES : MOUND BREAKWATER 4 : PROTECTION FACILITIES : WALL TYPE AND SPECIAL BREAKWATERS 5 : PLANNING AND LAYOUT OF PORTS 6 : DOCKING FACILITIES 7 : REPAIRING FACILITIES 8 : APPROACH FACILITIES 9 : LOADING UNLOADING FACILITIES 10 : STO RING FACILITIES 11 : DREDGING FACILITIES 12 : GUIDING FACILITIES Section II : TUNNEL ENGINEERING 13 : GENERAL ASPECTS 14 : STAGES IN TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION 15 : SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND TUNNELLING METHODS 16 : OT HER METHODS OF TUNNELLIN G IN SOFT SOILS 17 : T UNNELLING IN WATER BEARING SOILS 18 : T UNNELLING IN ROCK 19 : T HE NEW AUSTRIAN TUNNELLING METHOD (NATM) 20 : SHAFTS 21 : T UNNEL LINING 22 : DRAINAGE OF TUNNELS 23 : T UNNEL VENTILATION, DUST PREVENTION AND LIGHTING 24 : HEALTH PROTECTION IN TUNNELS Index