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BRIDGE ENGINEERING

BE_9789385039089

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Length170 mm
Thickness13 mm
Height240 mm
Weight0.395
AuthorRangwala
Pages298 + 16 = 314
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789385039089
SizeCrown
Edition16th
Year 2015

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Bridge_Engineering_Rangwala

BRIDGE ENGINEERINGRangwalaEdition : 16th Edition : 2015 ISBN : 9789385039089 Size : 170 mm × 240 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 298 + 16 = 314` 175.00ABBOUT THE BOOKThis book aims at presenting the topics of Bridge Engineering written in a simple manner. The subject-matter is characterized by comprehensive as well as methodical and easy-to-follow style. Out line of Sixteenth Revised and Enlarged edition of this popular and highly acclaimed book of Bridge Engineering are as below: Chapter 1 gives Introduction of the subject. Chapters 2 and 3 of Bridge Foundations, expanded and divided in two separate chapters. Foundation I: Spread and Pile Foundations and Foundation II: Caissons and Cofferdams. Chapter 4 explains Sub-structures such as Abutments, Piers, Wing Walls etc. Chapter 5 gives variety of Fixed-Span Super-structures – Various Types of Bridges such as Simple, Cantilever, Arch, Bow-string Girder type, Rigid Frame, Suspension, Cable-stayed bridges. Chapter 6 consists Low cost Bridges: Movable-Span Super-structures. Chapter 7 consists Low cost Bridges: Culverts and Causeways. Chapter 8 consists Low cost Bridges: Timber or Temporary Bridges. Chapter 9 discusses Flooring. It includes Factors, Requirements of Floorings, Types of Floorings and various Flooring Materials etc. Chapter 11 mention the Broad Outline of Loading on Bridges. Chapter 12 This newly added chapter gives knowledge on Construction and Erection Methods of Bridge Super-structure. Chapter 13 is newly added chapter on Maintenance of the bridges. Chapter 14 give various Miscellaneous Topics such as Afflux; Approaches of Bridge; Bridge Architecture, Clearance and Freeboard, Combined Road and Railway Bridges; Double-decker Bridge; Economic Span of Bridge, Grip Length, Handrails, Joints of Bridge; M.F.D. or H.F.L.; River Training Works etc. In Appendix, Marvellous Bridges of the world, which gives technical information, such as India’s latest Bandra-Worli Sea Link, Mumbai, India; The Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, USA; Tower Bridge, London, UK, Sundial Bridge, California, USA and Zhangjiajie Grand Canyon Glass Bridge, Chaina. The text-matter has been arranged systematically into Fourteen Chapters assisted by: * 224 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches; * 12 Illustrative problems; * 20 Important useful tables; * 251 Typical questions at the end of the chapters. The book should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove of interest to the practising professionals.CONTENT1 : INTRODUCTION 2 : FOUNDATION — 1 SPREAD AND PILE FOUNDATION 3 : FOUNDATIONS — 2 CAISSONS AND COFFERDAMS 4 : SUB-STRUCTURES 5 : FIXED-SPAN SUPER-STRUCTURES 6 : LOW COST BRIDGES: MOVABLE-SPAN SUPER-STRUCTURES 7 : LOW COST BRIDGES: CULVERTS AND CAUSEWAYS 8 : LOW COST BRIDGES: TIMBER OR TEMPORARY BRIDGES 9 : FLOORING 10 : LOADING ON BRIDGES 11 : BEARINGS 12 : CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION METHODS OF BRIDGE SUPER-STRUCTURE 13 : MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES 14 : MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS APPENDIX: SOME MARVELLOUS BRIDGES BIBLIOGRAPHY IndexBRIDGE ENGINEERING Detailed ContentsChapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1-1. General 1-2. Development of bridges (1) Arch bridges (3) Simply supported bridges (2) Suspension bridges (4) Truss and girder bridges 1-3. Changing Scenario in Design and Construction of bridges 1-4. Components of a bridge (1) Sub-structure (3) Adjoining structures (2) Super-structure 1-5. Classification of bridges 1-6. Importance of bridges 1-7. Identification of bridges 1-8. Preliminary data to be collected 1-9. Selection of bridge site (1) Connection with roads (8) Right-angle (square) (2) Freeboard crossing (3) Firm embankments or (9) Scouring and silting river banks (10) Straight stretch of river (4) Foundations (11) Velocity of flow (5) Large tributaries (12) Width of river (6) Materials and labour (7) Minimum obstruction to waterway 1-10. Choice of bridge type (1) Approaches (5) Foundations (2) Availability of funds (6) Navigational requirements (3) Climatic conditions (7) Specialized firm (4) Economy in construction (8) Type of traffic 1-11. Requirements of an Ideal Bridge 1-12. Stages of investigation (1) Reconnaissance or technical feasibility stage (2) Preliminary or techno-economic feasibility stage (3) Detailed survey and project report stage 1-13. Preliminary and final project drawings (1) Catchment area map (4) Index map (2) Contour plan (5) Longitudinal section (3) Cross-sections (6) Soil profile 1-14. Bridge Alignment (1) Alignment on curve (4) Layout of approaches (2) Control of highest flood (5) River training works level (6) Skew bridges (3) Effects of silting and scouring 1-15. Traffic requirements of highway bridges (1) Alignment (5) Parapets and handrails (2) Central verge (6) Roadway width (3) Footpath (7) Safety kerbs (4) Lighting (8) Sight distance 1-16. Length of a bridge 1-17. Linear Waterway of a bridge 1-18. Maximum flood discharge 1-18-1. Direct method of calculating the maximum flood discharge (1) Measurement of area (2) Measurement of velocity of flow 1-18-2. Indirect method of calculating the maximum flood discharge (1) Rational method (2) Use of empirical formulae 1-19. Number of spans (1) Alternative proposals (3) Odd number of spans (2) Foundations for piers (4) Span 1-20. I.R.C. Guide line code Questions 1 Chapter 2: FOUNDATION — 1 SPREAD AND PILE FOUNDATION 2-1. General 2-2. Essential requirements of a good foundation (1) Location (2) Stability (3) Settlement 2-3. General principles of design of bridge foundations (1) Bearing capacity of soil (3) Scour depth (2) Frictional resistance 2-4. Subsoil exploration (1) Test pits (2) Probing (3) Auger boring (4) Wash boring (6) Deep boring (5) Test piles (7) Geophysical method 2-5. Testing of soil samples (1) Plate bearing test (3) Vane shear test (2) Standard penetration test (SPT) 2-6. Types of foundations 2-7. Spread foundations 2-8. Pile foundations 2-9. Requirements for pile foundation 2-10. Types of piles 2-11. Load bearing piles (1) Bearing piles (2) Friction piles 2-12. Materials used in construction of load bearing piles 2-13. Cast-iron piles (1) Advantages of cast-iron piles (2) Disadvantages of cast-iron piles 2-14. Cement concrete piles 2-14-1. Cast-in-situ concrete piles (1) Cased cast-in-situ concrete piles (2) Uncased cast-in-situ concrete piles 2-14-2. Pre-cast concrete piles (1) General (2) Casting of the pre-cast concrete piles (3) Advantages and disadvantages of pre-cast concrete piles (4) Underwater repairs of pre-cast concrete piles 2-15. Sand piles 2-16. Steel piles (1) H-beam piles (2) Box piles (3) Tube piles 2-17. Timber piles 2-18. Wrought-iron piles 2-19. Non-load bearing piles (1) Concrete sheet piles (3) Timber sheet piles (2) Steel sheet piles 2-20. Choice of type of pile 2-21. Composite piles 2-22. Screw piles 2-23. Pulling of piles (1) Use of double-acting (3) Use of tongs steam hammers (4) Use of vibrators (2) Use of pile extractors (5) Use of electricity 2-24. Loads on piles 2-25. Causes of failures of piles Questions 2 Chapter 3: FOUNDATIONS — 2 CAISSONS AND COFFERDAMS 3-1. General 3-2. Uses of caissons 3-3. Cofferdam and caisson 3-4. Materials used for the construction of caissons (1) Cast-iron (3) Steel (2) Reinforced cement concrete (4) Timber 3-5. Classification of caissons 3-6. Box caissons (1) Construction of a box caisson (2) Conditions favourable for the construction of a box caisson (3) Points to be noted in case of a box caisson 3-7. Wells (1) Single wells (3) Cylinders (2) Multiple wells or monoliths 3-8. Pneumatic caissons 3-9. Construction of a pneumatic caisson 3-10. Pneumatic caisson sickness (1) Cause of caisson sickness (2) Precautions to be taken to avoid caisson sickness 3-11. Drilled caissons (1) Bell (2) Shaft (3) Cap 3-12. Methods of construction of drilled caisson (1) Hand excavation method (2) Machine drilled caisson 3-13. Precautions during construction of drilled caisson 3-14. Loads on caisson (1) Vertical loads (2) Lateral loads (3) Sinking loads 3-15. Floating of caissons (1) Construction of dry dock (3) Turning of caissons (2) Floating from bank (4) Use of compressed air 3-16. Cutting edges (1) Cutting edges with sharp ends (2) Cutting edges with blunt ends 3-17. Factors affecting the choice of a cutting edge 3-18. Skin friction 3-19. Sand blowing 3-20. Methods to facilitate the sinking of caissons (1) Air and water jets (3) Loading (2) Blasting (4) Sand island 3-21. Tilting of caissons 3-22. General 3-23. Uses of cofferdams 3-24. Types of cofferdams (1) Dikes (5) Rock-filled crib (2) Single wall cofferdams cofferdams (3) Double wall cofferdams (6) Concrete cofferdams (4) Cellular cofferdams (7) Suspended cofferdams 3-25. Prevention of leakage in cofferdams 3-26. Puddle for cofferdam 3-27. Factors affecting design of a cofferdam Questions 3 Chapter 4: SUB-STRUCTURES 4-1. General 4-2. Abutments (1) Definition (5) Conditions of stability (2) Functions (6) Dimensions (3) Types (4) Forces acting on an abutment 4-3. Piers (1) Definition (2) Function (3) Types (4) Forces acting on a pier (5) Conditions of stability (6) Dimensions (7) Location (8) Abutment pier 4-4. Wing walls (1) Definition (2) Functions (3) Types (4) Forces acting on a wing wall (5) Conditions of stability (6) Dimensions (7) Precautions 4-5. Setting out for piers and abutments (1) Bench marks (2) Positions of reference points (3) Principal reference lines (4) Replacing original points 4-6. Materials for sub-structures (1) Cement concrete (2) Masonry (3) Steel 4-7. Bridge Inspection Questions 4 Chapter 5: FIXED-SPAN SUPER-STRUCTURES 5-1. General 5-2. Simple bridges or beam bridges (1) Deck bridges (2) Through bridges (3) Semi-through bridges 5-3. Continuous bridges (1) Facilities for erection (2) Hard soil 5-4. Cantilever bridges 5-5. Arch bridges (1) General (2) Classification of bridge arches (3) Advantages of arch bridges (4) Disadvantages of arch bridges 5-6. Bow-string girder type bridges (1) R.C.C. bow-string girder bridge (2) Steel bow-string girder bridge 5-7. Rigid frame bridges (1) R.C.C. portal frame (2) Steel portal frame 5-8. Suspension bridges (1) General (2) Classification of suspension bridges (3) Types of suspension bridges (4) Advantages and disadvantages of suspension bridges 5-9. Cable-stayed bridges 5-10. Role of cable sheath in cable stayed bridge 5-11. Materials for super-structures (1) Cement concrete (2) Masonry (3) Steel (4) Timber 5-12. Composite bridges QUESTIONS 5 Chapter 6: LOW COST BRIDGES: MOVABLE-SPAN SUPER-STRUCTURES 6-1. Low cost bridges 6-2. Movable-span super-structures 6-3. Bascule bridges 6-4. Cut-boat bridges 6-5. Flying bridges 6-6. Lift bridges (1) Number of towers (2) Construction (3) Overhead trusses (4) Span (5) Wind pressure 6-7. Swing bridges (1) Flooring (2) Locking arrangements (3) Position of pier 6-8. Transporter bridges 6-9. Traversing bridges QUESTIONS 6 Chapter 7: LOW COST BRIDGES: CULVERTS AND CAUSEWAYS 7-1. Definition 7-2. Waterway of a culvert (1) For catchment area upto 40 hectares (2) For catchment area from 40 to 280 hectares 7-3. Types of culverts (1) Arch culverts (2) Box culverts (3) Pipe culverts (4) Slab culverts (5) Scuppers 7-4. Causeways (1) Definition (4) Conditions to be satisfied (2) Types (5) Data to be collected (3) Necessity (6) Design of H.L.C. QUESTIONS 7 Chapter 8: LOW COST BRIDGES: TIMBER OR TEMPORARY BRIDGES 8-1. Definition 8-2. Materials used 8-3. Fastenings used 8-4. Types of timber or temporary bridges 8-5. Bridges with intermediate supports (1) Crates (2) Cribs (3) Pile bents (4) Trestles 8-6. Bridges without intermediate supports (1) Cantilevers (2) Suspension bridges (3) Trusses 8-7. Floating bridges (1) Boat bridges (2) Pontoon bridges (3) Raft bridges Questions 8 Chapter 9: FLOORING 9-1. General 9-2. Factors affecting the choice of Flooring material 9-3. Requirements of a good flooring material 9-4. Types of floors (1) Open floors (2) Solid floors 9-5. Flooring materials (1) Jack arch (4) Mild steel troughs (2) Mild steel buckle (5) Reinforced cement plates concrete (3) Mild steel plates (6) Timber 9-6. Drainage of floors QUESTIONS 9 Chapter 10: LOADING ON BRIDGES 10-1. General 10-2. Buoyancy pressure 10-3. Centrifugal forces (1) Road bridges (2) Railway bridges 10-4. Dead load (1) Unwin’s formula (2) American formula for plate girders (3) American formula for trusses (4) R.C.C. arches (5) R.C.C. slab bridges upto m span (6) R.C.C. slab and T beam bridges 10-5. Deformation stresses 10-6. Earth pressure 10-7. Erection stresses 10-8. Impact load (1) For road bridges (2) For railway bridges 10-9. Live load (1) For road bridges (2) For railway bridges 10-10. Longitudinal forces (1) For road bridges (2) For railway bridges 10-11. Secondary stresses 10-12. Seismic load 10-13. Temperature variation forces (1) Concrete structures (3) Temperature variation (2) Metal structures 10-14. Water pressure 10-15. Wind load (1) For road bridges (2) For railway bridges 10-16. Design of bridge foundations 10-17. Forces acting on different components of a bridge (1) Forces acting on foundation (2) Forces acting on abutments (3) Forces acting on piers (4) Forces acting on wing walls (5) Forces acting on super-structures QUESTIONS 10 Chapter 11: BEARINGS 11-1. Definition 11-2. Purposes of bearings 11-3. Importance of bearings 11-4. Free and fixed bearings 11-5. Types of bearings (1) Cement mortar pad (9) Sole plate on curved bed (2) Expansion bearing plate bearing (3) Knuckle bearing (10) Tar paper bearing (4) Rocker and roller bearing (11) Pin bearing (5) Rocker bearing (12) Pot bearing (6) Rubber bearing (13) Laminated elastomeric (7) Neoprene bearing pads bearing (8) Sliding bearing 11-6. Materials for bearings 11-7. Bed blocks 11-8. Maintenance of bearings QUESTIONS 11 Chapter 12: CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION METHODS OF BRIDGE SUPER-STRUCTURE 12-1. General (1) Centering (2) Field forces (3) Machinery (4) Measurement of span (5) Selection of method 12-2. Erection of steel girders (1) Building out from supports (2) Floating (3) Lifting (4) Rolling (5) Staging 12-3. Erection of steel truss bridges (1) First stage (2) Second stage (3) Third stage (4) Fourth stage 12-4. Erection of suspension bridges (1) Erection of towers (4) Erection of stiffening trusses (2) Erection of suspenders (5) Erection of flooring system (3) Erection of catwalks 12-5. Construction of pre-stressed concrete super-structure 12-6. Erection of R.C.C. and pre-stressed girder bridges (1) Cast-in-situ construction on staging (2) Segmental cantilever construction using cast-in-situ or precast segments (3) Span by span method (4) Incremental launching method (5) Movable form system or movable scaffold system 12-7. Formwork for arch bridges (1) Good features (2) Types Questions 12 Chapter 13: MAINTENANCE OF THE BRIDGES 13-1. General 13-2. Deterioration of bridges 13-3. Bridge Failures 13-4. Defects of bridges and their rectification (1) Cracks in concrete (2) Corrosion of structural (3) Other defects of bridge steel work 13-5. Inspection of bridges (1) Detailed inspection (2) Routine inspection 13-6. Posting of bridges (1) Load limit postings (2) Speed postings 13-7. Rating of existing bridges (1) Magnetic particle detector (3) Ultrasonic testing (2) Radiographic equipment equipment 13-8. Rebuilding of bridges (1) Damage (3) Obsolescence (2) Excessive maintenance cost (4) Weathering 13-9. Testing and strengthening of bridges (1) Correlation method (3) Theoretical method (2) Load testing 13-10. Maintenance of the bridges Questions 13 Chapter 14: MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 14-1. General 14-2. Afflux (1) Definition (2) Importance (3) Height of afflux 14-3. Approaches of bridge (1) Borrow pits (2) Construction (3) Cost (4) Curvature (5) Extension of bridge (6) Gradient (7) Joint walls (8) Maintenance (9) Width and length 14-4. Bridge architecture (1) Construction (5) Lines and edges (2) General design (6) Proportioning (3) Landscaping (7) Railings (4) Light and shade (8) Simplicity 14-5. Clearance and freeboard (1) Definition (2) Necessity (3) Provisions 14-6. Combined road and railway bridges (1) Airlock equipment (5) Lighting on road (2) Alignment (6) Section (3) Foundations (7) Super-structure (4) High tensile steel (8) Total length 14-7. Double-decker bridge 14-8. Economic span of the bridge (1) Definition (2) Assumptions (3) Exceptions 14-9. Grip Length 14-10. Handrails (1) Panel slab and post system (2) Post and rail system 14-11. Joints of bridge (1) Construction joints (2) Expansion and contraction joints 14-12. Maximum flood discharge or High flood level (H.F.L.) 14-13. River Training works (1) Objects (2) Methods Questions 14 APPENDIX: SOME MARVELLOUS BRIDGES A-1. Bandra Worli Sea Link (Rajiv Gandhi Setu) – Mumbai, India A-1-1. Planning A-1-2. The amazing facts behind Bandra-Worli Sea Link A-1-3. Benefits of the project A-1-4. Criticism of the project A-2. Golden Gate Bridge – San francisco, U.S.A. A-2-1. The amazing facts behind Golden Gate Bridge A-3. Tower Bridge – London, U.K. A-4. Sundial bridge – California, U.S.A. A-5. Zhangjiajie grand canyon glass bridge – China BIBLIOGRAPHY

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