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RAILWAY ENGINEERING

RE_9789385039164

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Length170 mm
Thickness18 mm
Height235 mm
Weight540 gm
AuthorRangwala
Pages432 + 16 =448
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789385039164
SizeCrown
Edition26th
Year 2016

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Railway_Engineering

RAILWAY ENGINEERINGRangwalaEdition : 26th Edition : 2016 ISBN : 9789385039164 Size : 170 mm × 235 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 432 + 16 = 448` 200.00ABOUT THE BOOKIn the subject of Transportation Engineering, study of Railway Engineering is essential. This well-known text-book now in its Twenty Sixth Thoroughly Revised and Enlarged Edition, provides an up-to-date account of the basic principles on various functions and working of Railways. Its excellent material fills a significant void in the literature of Railway Engineering. The entire subject is systematically arranged in chapters like: Introduction; Railway Track Gauges; Surveys and Alignment of Railway Lines; Railway Traction; Rails; Ballast; Earthwork and Drainage for Railway Track; Plate-laying; Track Fittings; Geometric Design of a Track; Resistance to Traction; Points and Crossings; Railway Stations and Yards; Railway Station Machinery; Signalling; Interlocking; Maintenance of Track; Tunnelling; Rapid Transit System (Metro Rail System); Materials Management. Appendix I: Units Of The Indian Railway; Appendix II: Training Institutions of the Indian Railways; Appendix III: Famous Indian Trains; Appendix IV: Abbreviated Terms; and Appendix V: Multiple Choice Questions. The topics of the subject are covered in 21 well-arranged chapters and 5 appendices; it now contains: * 242 Self-explanatory and Neatly Drawn Diagrams * 26 Useful Tables * 29 Solved Illustrative Problems * 191 Multiple Choice Questions * 394 Questions at the end of the chapters. The book should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove of interest to the practising professionals.CONTENT1 : INTRODUCTION 2 : RAILWAY TRACK GAUGES 3 : SURVEYS AND ALIGNMENT OF RAILWAY LINES 4 : RAILWAY TRACTION 5 : RAILS 6 : SLEEPERS 7 : BALLAST 8 : EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGE FOR RAILWAY TRACK 9 : PLATE-LAYING 10 : TRACK FITTINGS 11 : GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF A TRACK 12 : RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 13 : POINTS AND CROSSINGS 14 : RAILWAY STATIONS AND YARDS 15 : RAILWAY STATION MACHINERY 16 : SIGNALLING 17 : INTERLOCKING 18 : MAINTENANCE OF TRACK 19 : TUNNELLING 20 : RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (METRO RAIL SYSTEM) 21 : MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Appendix I : UNITS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAY Appendix II : TRAINING INSTITUTIONS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAYS Appendix III : FAMOUS INDIAN TRAINS Appendix IV : ABBREVIATED TERMS Appendix V : MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEXRAILWAY ENGINEERING Detailed ContentsChapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1. Brief history of railways 1-2. Importance of railways (1) General (2) Characteristics of railways (3) Advantages of railways 1-3. Trends in modern railways 1-4. Trains of tomorrow (Maglev Trains) 1-5. Automatic train operation 1-6. Indian railways 1-7. Development of the Indian railway (1) The old guarantee system (1849-1869) (2) State construction and ownership (1869-1882) (3) The modified guarantee system (1882-1924) (4) Nationalisation (1924-1944) (5) Integration and regrouping (1944-1966) 1-8. Classification of Indian Railways (1) Trunk routes (2) Main lines (3) Branch Lines 1-9. Achievements of Indian Railways 1-10. Future plan of Indian Railways QUESTIONS 1 Chapter 2 RAILWAY TRACK GAUGES 2-1. Definition of gauge of track 2-2. Factors affecting the choice of a gauge (1) Traffic condition (3) Cost of track (2) Development of poor (4) Speed of movement areas (5) Nature of country 2-3. Types of gauges (1) Broad gauge (3) Metre gauge (2) Standard gauge (4) Narrow gauge 2-4. Uniformity in gauges (1) Problems caused by change of gauge (2) Advantages of uniform gauge 2-5. Unigauge project of Indian Railways 2-6. Loading gauge 2-7. Construction gauge 2-8. Track capacity 2-9. Electrification of the Indian Railways QUESTIONS 2 Chapter 3 SURVEYS AND ALIGNMENT OF RAILWAY LINES 3-1. Reasons for laying a new railway line (1) Strategic consideration (2) Linking of trade centres (3) Connecting port with the interior of the country (4) Shortening existing route (5) Laying of a branch line (6) Undeveloped area 3-2. Factors influencing the proposed route (1) Cost (3) Speed (2) Safety 3-3. Railway surveys 3-3-1. Reconnaissance survey (1) Objects of reconnaissance survey (2) Importance of reconnaissance survey (3) Information gathered in reconnaissance survey (4) Factors to be kept in view during reconnaissance survey (5) Instruments for reconnaissance survey 3-3-2. Preliminary survey (1) Object of preliminary survey (2) Importance of preliminary survey (3) Work of preliminary survey (4) Instruments for preliminary survey 3-3-3. Location survey (1) Object of location survey (2) Importance of location survey (3) Work of location survey (4) Instruments for location survey 3-3-4. Railway Electrification Survey (1) Cost cum feasibility survey (2) Foot by foot survey 3-4. Project report and drawings 3-5. Construction of new lines QUESTIONS 3 Chapter 4 RAILWAY TRACTION 4-1. Tractive effort of a locomotive 4-2. Track stresses (1) Elastic theory (2) Procedure for determining track stresses QUESTIONS 4 Chapter 5 RAILS 5-1. Permanent way and its requirements 5-2. Functions of rails 5-3. Requirements of an ideal rail 5-4. Types of rails (1) Double headed rails (3) Flat footed rails (2) Bull headed rails 5-5. Steel for rails (1) Medium manganese steel (2) High manganese steel (3) Chromium steel 5-6. Weight and section of rails (1) Cost (3) Waste of power (2) Durability of track 5-7. Marking on rails 5-8. Corrugated or roaring rails (1) Meaning (5) Types (2) Causes (6) Peculiar properties (3) Occurrence (7) Remedy (4) Effects 5-9. Corrosion of rails (1) Quality of rail (2) Surface treatment 5-10. Length of rail 5-11. Welding of rails (1) Theory (3) Advantages of welding of rails (2) Purposes (4) Methods of welding 5-12. Wear of rails (1) Wear of rails on top or head of rail (2) Wear of rails at ends of rails (3) Wear of rail on the sides of the head of rail 5-13. Methods adopted to reduce wear of rails (1) Use of special alloy steel (2) Good maintenance of track (3) Reduction of expansion gap (4) Exchange of inner and outer rails on curves (5) Introducing check rails (6) Use of lubricating oil (7) Head hardened rails 5-14. Measuring wear of rails 5-15. Renewal of rails (1) Wear of rails (2) Use of heavier locomotives (3) Construction of branch lines (4) Bending of rails 5-16. Failure of rails (1) Crushed head (4) Horizontal fissure (2) Transverse fissure (5) Square or angular breaks (3) Split head 5.17. Coning of wheels 5-18. Hogged rails 5-19. Buckling of rails 5-20. Creep of rails 5-20-1. Causes of creep (1) Brakes (2) Wave action or wave theory (3) Percussion theory (4) Changes in temperature 5-20-2. Factors determining magnitude of creep (1) Alignment of track (2) Gradient of track (3) Direction of motion of trains (4) Embankments (5) Weight and type of rail 5-20-3. Results of creep 5-20-4. Method of measuring the creep 5-20-5. Methods of correcting the creep (1) Pulling back of rails method (2) Use of creep anchors (3) Use of steel sleepers QUESTIONS 5 Chapter 6 SLEEPERS 6-1. Functions of sleepers 6-2. Types of sleepers (1) Longitudinal sleepers (2) Transverse sleepers 6-3. Requirements of an ideal material for sleeper 6-4. Materials for cross-sleepers (1) Timber or wooden sleepers (2) Steel sleepers (3) Cast-iron (C. I.) sleepers (4) Concrete sleepers 6-5. Sleeper density QUESTIONS 6 Chapter 7 BALLAST 7-1. Functions of ballast 7-2. Requirements of an ideal material for ballast 7-3. Materials used as ballast (1) Broken stone (5) Kankar (2) Gravel (6) Moorum (3) Ashes or cinders (7) Brickbats (4) Sand (8) Selected earth 7-4. Size and quantity of ballast 7-5. Screening of ballast QUESTIONS 7 Chapter 8 EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGE FOR RAILWAY TRACK 8-1. General 8-2. Usual forms of cross-sections 8-3. Features of railroad bed level (1) Width of formation (3) Drains (2) Slopes of sides (4) Method of construction 8-4. Drainage (1) Action of water (2) Importance of drainage (3) Requirements of drainage system 8-5. Stabilization of track on poor soil (1) Layer or blanket of moorum or sand (2) Cement grouting (3) Sand piles (4) Use of chemicals (5) By providing capillary break or cut-off QUESTIONS 8 Chapter 9 PLATE-LAYING 9-1. Meaning of the term 9-2. Methods of plate-laying (1) Tram line or side method (2) Telescopic method (3) American method 9-3. Materials required per unit length of track 9-4. Ballast trains 9-5. Relaying of track QUESTIONS 9 Chapter 10 TRACK FITTINGS 10-1. Rail joints 10-2. Avoidance of rail joints 10-3. Types of rail joints (1) Types according to position of joints (2) Types according to position of sleepers 10-4. Requirements of an ideal fastening 10-5. Fastenings for rails 10-6. Fish-plates (1) Purpose (4) Compound or junction (2) Design of fish-plates fish-plates (3) Details (5) Failures of fish-plates 10-7. Spikes, fang-bolts and hook-bolts 10-7-1. Spikes (1) Purpose of spikes (3) Types of spikes (2) Requirements of a good spike 10-7-2. Fang-bolts 10-7-3. Hook-bolts 10-8. Chairs and keys 10-9. Bearing-plates (1) Bearing area (5) Wear of spikes (2) Rail-cutting (6) Maintenance (3) Soil cutting on curves (7) Cost (4) Stability QUESTIONS 10 Chapter 11 GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF A TRACK 11-1. Objections to curvature of track 11-2. Designation of a curve 11-3. Types of curves and limiting radius or degree of curvature 11-4. Transition curves (1) Requirements of transition curve (2) Forms of transition curve (3) Length of transition curve (4) Shift 11-5. Super-elevation or cant 11-6. Factors affecting super-elevation (1) Frictional resistance (3) Body of the vehicle (2) Coning of wheels (4) Weighted average 11-7. Speed of trains on curves 11-8. Cant Deficiency and Negative super-elevation 11-9. Cant Excess 11-10. Grade compensation on curves 11-11. Bending of rails on curves 11-12. Cutting of rails on curves 11-13. Widening gauge on curves 11-14. Spirals for mountain railways 11-15. Switch-backs 11-16. Rack railways 11-17. String-lining of curves 11-18. Tilting train (1) The Italian Pendolino (4) Advanced passenger train (2) The Spanish Talgo (5) X-2000 (3) United aircraft turbo train (6) Inter City Neigezug QUESTIONS 11 Chapter 12 RESISTANCE TO TRACTION 12-1. Train resistances (1) Resistance due to friction (2) Resistance due to wave action (3) Resistance due to curves (4) Resistance due to gradients (5) Resistance due to speed of the train 12-2. Rolling stock 12-2-1. Locomotives (1) Definition (4) Design of locomotive (2) Types of locomotives (5) Classification (3) Essential parts of a (6) Power of locomotive locomotive 12-2-2. Coaches (1) Earlier coaches (3) Double decker coaches (2) Modern coaches 12-2-3. Wagons (1) Timber truck wagon (6) Powder wagon (2) Cattle wagon (7) Well wagon (3) Oil tank wagon (8) Refrigerated wagon (4) Petrol tank wagon (9) Special wagons (5) Hopper wagon 12-3. Train-brakes (1) Compressed air brakes (3) Axle-mounted brake (2) Vacuum brakes (4) Magnetic brakes 12-4. Dynamometer car (1) General (3) Functions (2) Mechanisms (4) Points to remember QUESTIONS 12 Chapter 13 POINTS AND CROSSINGS 13-1. Purpose 13-2. Some definitions 13-3. Sleepers laid for points and crossings (1) Through sleepers (2) Interlaced sleepers 13-4. Steel for points and crossings 13-5. Switches (1) Stub switch (2) Split switch 13-6. Shapes of switches (1) Undercut switches (3) Over-riding switches (2) Straight cut switches or composite switches 13-7. Lengths of stock rails and tongue rails 13-8. Heel divergence or heel clearance 13-9. Switch angle 13-10. Throw of switch 13-11. Crossings 13-12. Types of crossings (1) Ordinary or acute crossing (2) Double or obtuse crossing 13-13. Theoretical nose of crossing (T.N.c.) and actual nose of crossing (A.N.c.) 13-14. Crossing clearance 13-15. Crossing number 13-16. Crossing angle (1) Right angle or Cole’s method (2) Centre-line method (3) Isosceles triangle method 13-17. Different types of leads and their calculations 13-18. Laying of points and crossings (1) Where there is no traffic interruption as in case of a new turnout (2) Under traffic where the line is available for a few hours only 13-19. Maintenance of points and crossings 13-20. Combinations of points and crossings 13-20-1. Cross-overs 13-20-2. Scissors cross-overs 13-20-3. Slips 13-20-4. Fixed point 13-20-5. Three throws 13-20-6. Tandems or double turnouts 13-20-7. Gathering lines or ladder tracks 13-20-8. Gauntlet tracks 13-20-9. Double junctions QUESTIONS 13 Chapter 14 RAILWAY STATIONS AND YARDS 14-1. General 14-2. Definition of a station 14-3. Purposes of a railway station 14-4. Selection of site for a railway station 14-5. Facilities required at railway stations (1) Public requirements (2) Traffic requirements (3) Requirements of locomotive department (4) General requirements 14-6. Classification of stations 14-6-1. Operational classification (1) Block stations (2) Non-block or D class tations (3) Special class stations 14-6-2. Functional classification (1) Wayside stations (3) Terminals (2) Junctions 14-7. Platforms (1) Passenger platforms (2) Goods platforms 14-8. Staff quarters 14-9. Goods traffic at wayside stations 14-10. Catch sidings 14-11. Definition of a yard 14-12. Types of yards 14-12-1. Passenger yards 14-12-2. Goods yards 14-12-3. Marshalling yards (1) General (2) Design of marshalling yards (3) Features of marshalling yards (4) Types of marshalling yards 14-12-4. Locomotive yards 14-13. Level-crossing QUESTIONS 14 Chapter 15 RAILWAY STATION MACHINERY 15-1. Meaning of the term 15-2. Engine sheds (1) Rectangular type engine shed (2) Circular type engine shed 15-3. Ash-pits, ash-pans and examination pits 15-4. Drop pits 15-5. Water columns 15-6. Triangles 15-7. Turntables 15-8. Traversers 15-9. Cranes (1) Fixed-jib crane (2) Mobile crane (3) Gantry consisting of two parallel beams (4) Goliath 15-10. Weigh-bridges 15-11. Scotch blocks 15-12. Bufferstops 15-13. Derailing switch or trap switch 15-14. Sand hump on snag dead-end 15-15. Cow catcher QUESTIONS 15 Chapter 16 SIGNALLING 16-1. General 16-2. Objects of signalling 16-3. Classification of signals 16-3-1. Classification according to function (1) Stop signals or semaphore type signals (2) Warner signals (3) Disc or ground signals (4) Coloured light signals 16-3-2. Classification according to location (1) Outer signal (3) Starter signal (2) Home signal (4) Advance starter signal 16-3-3. Special signals (1) Routing signals (4) Calling-on signals (2) Repeating signals (5) Indicators (3) Co-acting signals (6) Miscellaneous signals 16-4. Typical layouts (1) Signalling at diverging junction (2) Signalling at converging junction (3) Signalling at a junction of two main lines and two branch lines with a siding 16-5. Control of movements of trains (1) Following trains system (5) Centralized traffic (2) Absolute block system control system (3) Automatic signalling (6) Cab signalling system (4) Pilot guard system 16-6. Telecommunication 16-7. Compensators 16-8. Fouling marks QUESTIONS 16 Chapter 17 INTERLOCKING 17-1. Definition 17-2. Essential principles of interlocking 17-3. Methods of interlocking (1) Tappets and locks system (2) Key system (3) Route relay system (RRS) 17-4. Slotting of signals (1) Meaning of the term (3) Purposes (2) Principles (4) Methods 17-5. Detectors 17-6. Point lock and treadle or lock bar 17-7. Interlocking of level-crossings 17-8. Interlocking standards (1) Automatic signalling (4) Isolation of main line (2) Grouping of levers (5) Large stations (3) Interlocking 17-9. Improvements in interlocking and signalling QUESTIONS 17 Chapter 18 MAINTENANCE OF TRACK 18-1. General (1) Foundations (2) Nature of structure 18-2. Necessity for maintenance of track (1) New track (2) Constant use 18-2-1. Maintenance of track proper (1) Duties of a gangmate or a ganger (2) Duties of a keyman (3) Duties of a Permanent Way Inspector (P.W.I.) 18-2-2. Maintenance of railway bridges 18-2-3. Maintenance of rolling stock 18-3. Accidents (1) General (2) Causes of accidents (3) Points to be observed at the time of accident (4) Preventive measures 18-4. Signalling during maintenance 18-5. Estimating speed of a running train (1) Counting the rail joints passed (2) Counting the telegraph posts 18-6. Speed restriction 18-7. Tools required during maintenance 18-8. Packing 18-9. Rail inspection 18-10. Track inspection 18-11. Maintenance and boxing of ballast 18-12. Track imprest 18-13. Trackwork for high speeds 18-14. Speeds on the Indian railways (1) Brakes and signals (6) Energy consumption (2) Cattle and trespassers (7) Level-crossings (3) Curves (8) Locomotives (4) Deterioration of track (9) On-board facilities in trains and rolling stock (10) Sharing of routes (5) Dust nuisance 18-15. Emergency measures (1) Diversions (4) Scouring (2) Ash or selected earth (5) Wagons with rubble (3) Temporary supports (6) Breakdown vans QUESTIONS 18 Chapter 19 TUNNELLING 19-1. General 19-2. Definition of a tunnel 19-3. Advantages and disadvantages of tunnels and open cuts (1) Advantages of tunnels (2) Disadvantages of tunnels (1) Advantages of open cuts (2) Disadvantages of open cuts 19-4. Classification of tunnels (1) Classification according to alignment (2) Classification according to purpose (3) Classification according to type of material used in the construction 19-5. Shape of tunnels (1) Circular section (2) D-section or segmental roof section (3) Egg-shaped section (4) Elliptical section (5) Horse-shoe section 19-6. Size of tunnels 19-7. Problems in tunnelling 19-8. Investigations for tunnel site (1) Investigations before planning (2) Investigations at the time of planning (3) Investigations at the time of construction 19-9. Setting out of tunnel (1) Setting out tunnel on ground surface (2) Transfer of centre line from surface to underground (3) Underground setting out (4) Underground levelling 19-10. Tunnelling through rock (1) Full face method (2) Heading and bench system (3) Cantilever car dump method (4) Drift system (5) Pilot tunnel method 19-11. Tunnelling through soft ground (1) Forepoling method (4) Liner plates method (2) Needle beam method (5) Other methods (3) Five-piece set method 19-12. Methods of tunnelling through sub-aqueous strata (1) Shield tunnelling (2) Plenum process or compressed air tunnelling 19-13. Drainage of tunnels 19-14. Pre-drainage 19-15. Dewatering (Temporary drainage) 19-16. Pumping (Temporary drainage) 19-17. Permanent drainage 19-18. Tunnel Lighting (1) Spacing of lights (2) Types of tunnel lights 19-19. Ventilation in tunnels (1) Objects of tunnel ventilation (2) Requirements of tunnel ventilation (3) Volume of air required (4) Methods of ventilation (5) Equipments for ventilation (6) Permanent ventilation (1) Semi-lateral system (2) Permanent ventilation 19-20. Dust Control in Tunnels 19-21. Shafts (1) Drilling (3) Gloryholing (2) Raising 19-22. Portals 19-23. Mucking (1) Manual labour (3) Mucking machines (2) Power shovels (4) Tractor loaders 19-24. Hauling 19-25. Lining of tunnels 19-26. Maintenance of railway tunnels 19-27. Safety precautions in tunnelling QUESTIONS 19 Chapter 20 RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM (METRO RAIL SYSTEM) 20-1. General 20-2. Underground railways 20-3. KOLKATA Metro 20-4. Delhi Metro 20-5. Dubai Metro (1) Phase 1 (Red Line) (3) Future plans (2) Phase 2 (Green Line) 20-6. Tube railways 20-7. Ahmedabad Metro Rail Project 20-8. Ten Largest Metro Rail Systems In The World (1) New York City (NYC) Subway (2) Paris Metro (7) Beijing Subway (3) Madrid Metro (8) Mexico City Metro (4) Seoul Subway (9) Moscow Metro (5) London Underground (10) Tokyo Metro (6) Shanghai Metro QUESTIONS 20 Chapter 21 MATERIALS MANAGEMENT 21-1. Meaning of the term 21-2. Necessity in railways 21-3. Stores (1) Codification (7) Sectionalization (2) Divisions (8) Storage of materials (3) Internal transport (9) Storage of tools (4) Layout (10) Usual facilities (5) Location (11) Valuable articles (6) Material chart 21-4. Purchasing department (1) Co-operation with other departments (2) Market trends (3) Organization (4) Procedure for purchasing (5) Records 21-5. Store keeping (1) Accounting (5) Maxima and minima (2) Checking (6) Surplus materials (3) Golden rule (7) Tools (4) Issuing materials 21-6. Stock control (1) ABC analysis (2) VED analysis21-7. Spare parts management (1) Classification (3) Initial provisioning (2) Codification (4) Selective control 21-8. Importance QUESTIONS 21 Appendix I UNITS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAY A-I-1. Chittaranjan Locomotive Works A-I-2. Integral Coach Factory A-I-3. Diesel Locomotive Works A-I-4. Rail Coach Factory (RCF), Kapurthala A-I-5. Research, Designs and Standards Organization (1) Architectural services (7) Permanent way (2) Bridges (8) Psycho-technical cell (3) Consultancy service (9) Rolling stock (4) Electrification (10) Signalling and (5) Locomotives telecommunication (6) Maintenance of track (11) Testing of materials A-I-6. Rail India Technical and Economic Services Limited (RITES) A-I-7. Indian Railway Construction Company Limited (IRCON) Appendix II TRAINING INSTITUTIONS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAYS A-II-1. The Railway Staff College, Vadodara A-II-2. Indian Railways Institute of Civil Engineering (IRICEN), Pune A-II-3. Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering and Tele-communications (IRISET), Secunderabad A-II-4. Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Jamalpur A-II-5. Institute for Signal and Civil Engineering Officers at South Lallaguda, Secunderabad A-II-6. Indian Railways Institute of Electrical Engineering (IRIEEN), Nasik A-II-7. Indian Railways Institute of Transport Management (IRITM), Lucknow A-II-8. Jagjivan Ram Railway Protection Force Academy, Lucknow A-II-9. Railway University, Vadodara Appendix III FAMOUS INDIAN TRAINS A-III-1. Palace on Wheels A-III-2. Royal Orient A-III-3. Fairy Queen A-III-4. Kangra Queen A-III-5. Desert Queen A-III-6. Deccan Odyssey A-III-7. Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) A-III-8. Nilgiri Mountain Railway (or Ooty Rack Railway) A-III-9. Toy Trains A-III-10. Rajdhani Trains A-III-11. Shatabdi Express Trains A-III-12. Frontier Mail A-III-13. Flying Ranee A-III-14. Deccan Queen A-III-15. Boat Mail A-III-16. Janata Express, Jansewa Express, Matrubhumi Express, Jana Shatabdi Express, Garib Rath trains A-III-17. Samjhauta Express A-III-18. Lifeline Express A-III-19. Patiala State Monorail A-III-20. The Presidential Saloon A-III-21. DEMU, MEMU, EMU trains Appendix IV ABBREVIATED TERMS Appendix V MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

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