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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ECE_9789380358444

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Length170 mm
Thickness30 mm
Height240 mm
Weight0.935 mm
AuthorKetki Rangwala Dalal
Pages768 + 16 = 782
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789380358444
SizeCrown
Edition1st
Year 2012

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ESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING[ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING]Ketki Rangwala DalalEdition : 1st Edition : 2012 ISBN : 9789380358444 Size : 170 mm × 240 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 766 + 16 = 782` 275.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis book aims at presenting the topics of Elements of Civil Engineering written in a simple manner. The subject-matter is characterized by comprehension as well as methodical and easy-to-follow style. The book contains total Six Sections as mentioned below: Section I : Scope of Civil Engineering (Chapter 1) Section II : Surveying (Chapter 2 to Chapter 12) Section III : Construction Materials (Chapter 13 to Chapter 28) Section IV : Elements of Building Construction (Chapter 29 to Chapter 30) Section V : Water Resources Development (Chapter 31 to Chapter 33) Section VI : Transportation Engineering (Chapter 34 to Chapter 36). Every topic in this text book is explained in very simple and lucid language. All 36 chapters contain sufficient self explanatory matter, neat sketches, solved and unsolved examples and questions asked in G.T.U. Exams. The students will be able to prepare themselves by solving typical questions given at the end of each chapter. Previous years’ examination papers (with solution) of G.T.U. are given at the end of book for better preparation. Salient features of this book are: * 588 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches; * 87 Illustrative problems; * 85 Useful tables; * 640 Typical questions at the end of the chapters; * 176 Questions asked in G.T.U. Exams. The text-matter has been arranged systematically according to the curriculum developed by the Gujarat Technological University (G.T.U.) for the subject ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING [Subject code 110004 (Revised)] for the First year Degree Engineering students [Common to All Branches] and also it should prove to be extremely useful to the Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove great of interest and practical use to the practising professionals.CONTENTSection I : SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING 1 : SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Section II : SURVEYING 2 : INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING 3 : SCALES 4 : LINEAR MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES 5 : CHAIN SURVEYING AND RANGING 6 : CROSS-STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND INSTRUMENTS 7 : COMPASS SURVEY 8 : LEVELLING 9 : CONTOURING 10 : COMPUTATION OF AREAS 11 : COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES 12 : MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYING Section III : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 13 : PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS 14 : STONES 15 : CERAMIC MATERIALS 16 : BRICKS 17 : LIME 18 : CEMENT 19 : SAND 20 : MORTAR 21 : CEMENT CONCRETE 22 : TIMBER 23 : FERROUS METALS 24 : STEEL 25 : NON–FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS 26 : GLASS 27 : PAINTS, VARNISHES AND DISTEMPERS 28 : PLASTICS Section IV : ELEMENTS OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 29 : BUILDING PLANNING 30 : BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Section V : WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT 31 : ELEMENTARY HYDROLOGY 32 : WATER REQUIREMENTS AND ITS CONSERVATION 33 : SOURCES OF WATER Section VI : TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING 34 : INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING 35 : TRAFFIC ENGINEERING 36 : TYPICAL TRAFFIC SIGNS appendix A : gtu examination papers indexESSENTIALS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Detailed ContentsSECTION I : SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Chapter 1 SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING 1-1. Introduction 1-2. Scope of civil engineering 1-3. Main branches of civil engineering 1-4. Aspects of Civil Engineering 1-5. Role of civil engineers 1-6. Role of civil contractors 1-7. Infrastructural development of a country 1-8. Operations Management for Infrastructural Development 1-9. Construction management 1-10. Planning of the project 1-11. Supervision of the project 1-12. Scheduling or Network Planning 1-13. Features of scheduling or network planning 1-14. Rules for network diagram 1-15. Techniques of scheduling 1-16. Critical Path Method (CPM) 1-17. Procedure for CPM 1-18. Advantages of CPM 1-19. Uses of CPM 1-20. Time–grid diagram method 1-21. Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 1-22. Terminology Used in PERT 1-23. Bar charts or Gantt charts 1-24. Mile-stone charts 1-25. Selection of technique Questions 1 Questions asked in GTU exams Section II : SURVEYING Chapter 2 INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING 2-1. General 2-2. Object of survey 2-3. Purposes of survey 2-4. Classification of surveys 2-4-1. Engineering surveys 2-4-2. Geodetic surveys 2-4-3. Plane surveys 2-4-4. Miscellaneous surveys 2-4-5. Difference between plane and geodetic surveying 2-5. Principles of surveying 2-6. Uses of survey 2-7. Measurements and their units 2-8. Role of surveyor 2-9. Precision and accuracy in surveying Questions 2 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 3 SCALES 3-1. General 3-2. Requirements of a scale 3-3. Classification of scales 3-3-1. Plain scale 3-3-2. Diagonal scale 3-3-3. Vernier scale 3-3-4. Miscellaneous scales 3-4. Plans and maps 3-5. Scale for survey maps and plans 3-6. Correction due to use of wrong scale Questions 3 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 4 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES 4-1. General 4-2. Direct methods of linear measurements 4-2-1. Direct methods without instruments 4-2-2. Direct methods with instruments 4-3. Types of chains 4-4. Testing and adjusting of chain 4-5. Instruments for marking stations 4-6. Types of tapes Questions 4 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 5 CHAIN SURVEYING AND RANGING 5-1. General 5-2. Principle of chain survey 5-3. Survey stations 5-4. Survey lines 5-5. Offsets 5-6. Ranging 5-7. Types of ranging 5-7-1. Direct ranging 5-7-2. Indirect ranging 5-8. Chaining on plain ground 5-9. Points to be observed during chaining 5-10. Errors in ordinary chaining 5-10-1. Compensating errors 5-10-2. Cumulative errors 5-11. Degree of accuracy in chaining work 5-12. Instruments required in chain survey 5-13. Procedure for carrying out chain survey 5-14. Plotting work with conventional signs Questions 5 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 6 CROSS-STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND INSTRUMENTS 6-1. General 6-2. Purpose 6-3. Basic principle 6-4. Instruments for setting out perpendiculars 6-4-1. Chain or tape 6-4-2. Cross-staff 6-4-3. Optical square 6-5. Cross-staff survey 6-6. Obstacles in chaining 6-6-1. Chaining free but vision obstructed 6-6-2. Chaining obstructed but vision free 6-6-3. Chaining and vision both obstructed Questions 6 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 7 COMPASS SURVEY 7-1. General 7-2. Traversing and triangulation 7-3. Methods of measuring direction 7-4. Magnetic needle 7-5. Compass 7-6. Bearings 7-7. Magnetic declination 7-8. Classification of declination 7-9. Methods of designation 7-10. Fore bearing and back bearing 7-11. Included angles from bearings 7-12. Chain and compass survey 7-13. Plotting of compass survey 7-14. Closing error 7-15. Errors in compass survey 7-16. Precautions in using the compass 7-17. Accuracy and precision 7-18. Limits of precision Questions 7 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 8 LEVELLING 8-1. General 8-2. Definitions of some common terms in levelling 8-3. Methods of levelling 8-3-1. Direct levelling 8-3-2. Indirect levelling 8-4. Principles of levelling 8-5. Instruments for levelling 8-6. Types of levels 8-7. Levelling staff 8-8. Essential parts of a level 8-9. Parallax and focussing 8-10. Defects of a single lens 8-11. Parts of a telescope 8-12. Accessories to a level 8-13. Bench marks 8-14. Temporary adjustments of levels 8-15. Entering the staff readings 8-16. Reduction of levels 8-17. Difficulties in levelling 8-18. Errors in levelling 8-19. Precision of levelling Questions 8 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 9 CONTOURING 9-1. General 9-2. Contour lines 9-3. Contour interval 9-4. Horizontal equivalent 9-5. Characteristics of contours 9-6. Location of contours 9-7. Interpolation of contours 9-8. Contour drawing 9-9. Contour gradient 9-10. Uses of contours Questions 9 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 10 COMPUTATION OF AREAS 10-1. General 10-2. Methods for the computation of area 10-3. Geometrical figures 10-4. Measuring grids 10-5. Ordinates 10-6. Co-ordinates 10-7. Planimeter 10-8. Method of using a planimeter 10-9. Zero circle Questions 10 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 11 COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES 11-1. General 11-2. Computation of volume 11-3. Prismoidal correction Questions 11 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 12 MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYING 12-1. General 12-2. Electronic distance measurement instruments 12-3. Global positioning system 12-4. Geographic information system 12-5. Remote sensing Questions 12 Questions asked in GTU exams Section III : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS Chapter 13 PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS 13-1. General 13-2. Physical properties 13-3. Mechanical properties 13-4. Classification of materials based upon their uses Questions 13 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 14 STONES 14-1. General 14-2. Classification of rocks 14-3. Sources of stones 14-4. Texture or structure of a rock 14-5. Fracture of a rock 14-6. Uses of stones 14-7. Tests for stones 14-8. Qualities of a good building stone 14-9. Stone quarrying 14-10. Dressing of stones 14-11. Deterioration of stones 14-12. Preservation of stones 14-13. Common building stones of India 14-14. Artificial stones Questions 14 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 15 CERAMIC MATERIALS 15-1. General 15-2. Clay products 15-2-1. Terra-cotta 15-2-2. Earthenware 15-2-3. Stoneware 15-2-4. Porcelain 15-2-5. Tiles 15-3. Glazing 15-4. Refractories 15-5. Properties of ceramic materials 15-6. Importance of ceramics Questions 15 Chapter 16 BRICKS 16-1. General 16-2. Comparison of brickwork and stonework 16-3. Composition of good brick earth 16-4. Qualities of good bricks 16-5. Factors affecting quality of bricks 16-6. Tests for bricks 16-7. Classification of bricks 16-8. Uses of bricks 16-9. Size and weight of bricks 16-10. Special bricks Questions 16 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 17 LIME 17-1. General 17-2. Some definitions 17-3. Sources of lime 17-4. Classification of limes 17-5. I.S. classifications of lime 17-6. Comparison between fat lime and hydraulic lime 17-7. Uses of lime 17-8. Tests for limestones Questions 17 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 18 CEMENT 18-1. General 18-2. Cement and lime 18-3. Physical Properties of cement 18-4. Composition of ordinary cement 18-5. Functions of cement ingredients 18-6. Harmful constituents of cement 18-7. Manufacturing of ordinary cement 18-8. Characteristics of cement 18-9. Properties of cement 18-10. Field tests for cement 18-11. Laboratory tests for cement 18-12. Uses of cement 18-13. Varieties of cement 18-14. I.S. Specifications of ordinary cement Questions 18 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 19 SAND 19-1. Natural sources of sand 19-2. Classification of sand 19-3. Bulking of sand 19-4. Properties of good sand 19-5. Function of sand in mortar 19-6. Tests for sand 19-7. Substitutes for sand Questions 19 Chapter 20 MORTAR 20-1. General 20-2. Classification of mortars 20-3. Properties of good mortar mix and mortar 20-4. Uses of mortar 20-5. Selection of mortar 20-6. Precautions in using mortar Questions 20 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 21 CEMENT CONCRETE 21-1. General 21-2. Properties of cement concrete 21-3. Materials used in R.C.C. work 21-4. Proportioning concrete 21-5. Grading of aggregates 21-6. Water-cement ratio 21-7. Workability 21-8. Slump test 21-9. Estimating yield of concrete 21-10. Importance of bulking of sand 21-11. Mixing the materials of concrete 21-12. Transporting and placing of concrete 21-13. Consolidation of concrete 21-14. Curing of concrete 21-15. Types of cement concrete 21-15-1. Water-proofing cement concrete 21-15-2. Coloured concrete 21-15-3. Lightweight concrete 21-15-4. No-fines concrete 21-15-5. Pre-cast concrete 21-15-6. Ready-mix concrete 21-15-7. Transit-mix concrete 21-16. Guniting 21-17. Formwork 21-18. Quality control of concrete Questions 21 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 22 TIMBER 22-1. General 22-2. Trees for life 22-3. Classification of trees 22-4. Structure of a tree 22-4-1. Macrostructure 22-4-2. Microstructure 22-5. Seasoning of timber 22-6. Preservation of timber 22-7. Defects in timber 22-8. Qualities of good timber 22-9. Decay of timber 22-10. Storage of timber 22-11. Industrial timber 22-12. Timber construction 22-13. Uses of timber 22-14. Indian timber trees Questions 22 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 23 FERROUS METALS 23-1. General 23-2. Iron ores 23-3. Pig-iron 23-4. Cast-iron 23-5. Wrought-iron Questions 23 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 24 STEEL 24-1. General 24-2. Manufacture of steel 24-3. Uses of steel 24-4. Factors affecting physical properties of steel 24-5. Magnetic properties of steel 24-6. Defects in steel 24-7. Properties of mild steel 24-8. Properties of hard steel 24-9. Mechanical treatment of steel 24-10. Heat treatment processes 24-11. Market forms of steel Questions 24 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 25 NON–FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS 25-1. Non-ferrous metals 25-2. Aluminium 25-2-1. Manufacture of aluminium 25-2-2. Properties of aluminium 25-2-3. Evaluation of aluminium as building material 25-2-4. Economics of using aluminium 25-2-5. Forms of aluminium 25-2-6. Uses of aluminium 25-2-7. Conclusion 25-3. Cobalt 25-3-1. Manufacture of cobalt 25-3-2. Properties of cobalt 25-3-3. Uses of cobalt 25-4. Copper 25-4-1. Manufacture of Copper 25-4-2. Properties of Copper 25-4-3. Uses of Copper 25-5. Lead 25-5-1. Manufacture of Lead 25-5-2. Properties of Lead 25-5-3. Uses of Lead 25-6. Magnesium 25-6-1. Manufacture of Magnesium 25-6-2. Properties of Magnesium 25-6-3. Uses of Magnesium 25-7. Nickel 25-7-1. Manufacture of Nickel 25-7-2. Properties of Nickel 25-7-3. Uses of Nickel 25-8. Tin 25-8-1. Manufacture of Tin 25-8-2. Properties of Tin 25-8-3. Uses of Tin 25-9. Zinc 25-9-1. Manufacture of Zinc 25-9-2. Properties of Zinc 25-9-3. Uses of Zinc 25-10. Alloys 25-10-1. Aluminium alloys 25-10-2. Copper alloys 25-10-3. Magnesium alloys 25-10-4. Nickel alloys 25-10-5. Steel alloys Questions 25 Chapter 26 GLASS 26-1. General 26-2. Classification of glass 26-3. Composition of glass 26-4. Properties of glass 26-5. Types of glass 26-6. Coloured glass 26-7. Special varieties of glass Questions 26 Chapter 27 PAINTS, VARNISHES AND DISTEMPERS 27-1. General 27-2. Painting 27-2-1. Characteristics of an ideal paint 27-2-2. Pigment volume concentration number (P.V.C.N.) 27-2-3. Ingredients of an oil borne paint 27-2-4. Types of paints 27-3. Varnishing 27-3-1. Characteristics of an ideal varnish 27-3-2. Ingredients of a varnish 27-3-3. Types of varnishes 27-4. Distempering 27-4-1. Properties of distempers 27-4-2. Ingredients of a distemper 27-5. Whitewashing 27-6. Colourwashing Questions 27 Questions asked in GTU exams Chapter 28 PLASTICS 28-1. General 28-2. Composition of plastic 28-3. Polymerization 28-4. Classification of plastics 28-5. Properties of plastics 28-6. Uses of plastics 28-7. Biodegradable plastic 28-8. Fibre glass reinforced plastic 28-8-1. Properties of FRP 28-8-2. Applications of FRP in building industry 28-9. Conclusion Questions 28 Section IV : ELEMENTS OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Chapter 29 BUILDING PLANNING 29-1. General 29-2. Principles of Site Selection 29-3. Principles of planning 29-4. Orientation of the Building 29-5. Climate and its effects 29-6. Functional requirements of a building 29-7. Building bye-laws 29-7-1. Objects of bye-laws 29-7-2. Importance of bye-laws 29-7-3. Function of local authority 29-7-4. Applicability of bye-laws 29-7-5. Set-back 29-7-6. Light plane 29-7-7. Minimum plot sizes 29-7-8. Some other terms 29-7-9. Floor space index or built-up area 29-7-10. Open space requirements around the buildings 29-7-11. Size of rooms 29-7-12. Height of rooms and buildings 29-7-13. Lighting and ventilation of rooms 29-7-14. Water supply and sanitary positions 29-7-15. Structural design or sizes and sections 29-8. Elements of drawings 29-8-1. Drawing instruments 29-8-2. Scales 29-8-3. Line work 29-8-4. Lettering 29-8-5. Conventional signs and Symbols 29-8-6. Abbreviations for architectural and building drawing 29-9. Submission and working drawings 29-9-1. Requirements of a good drawing 29-9-2. Sketches 29-9-3. Views and details necessary for a drawing 29-9-4. Site plan 29-9-5. Layout plan and key or location plan 29-9-6. Composition of submission drawing 29-9-7. Engineering drawing and architectural drawing 29-9-8. Teaching civil engineering drawing 29-10. Planning of industrial structures 29-10-1. Planning aspects of industrial structures 29-10-2. Requirements of big industrial units 29-10-3. Industrial townships or estates 29-11. Planning of Residential Buildings 29-11-1. Usual requirements in planning Residential Buildings Questions 29 Questions asked in GTU Exams Chapter 30 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 30-1. General 30-2. Types of buildings 30-2-1. Group A: Residential buildings 30-2-2. Group B: Educational buildings 30-2-3. Group C: Institutional buildings 30-2-4. Group D: Assembly buildings 30-2-5. Group E: Business buildings 30-2-6. Group F: Mercantile buildings 30-2-7. Group G: Industrial buildings 30-2-8. Group H: Storage buildings 30-2-9. Group I: Hazardous buildings 30-3. Structural system of building 30-4. Comparison of load bearing structure with framed structure 30-5. Loads on foundations 30-6. Important Building Components 30-7. Foundations 30-7-1. Objects of foundations 30-7-2. Essential requirements of a good foundation 30-7-3. Types of foundations 30-7-4. Width of foundations 30-7-5. Depth of foundations 30-7-6. Grillage foundations 30-7-7. Raft foundations 30-7-8. Combined footing 30-7-9. Cantilever footing 30-7-10. Continuous footing 30-8. Doors, windows and ventilators 30-8-1. Important considerations for doors and windows 30-8-2. Technical terms for doors, windows and ventilators 30-8-3. Types of doors 30-8-4. Types of windows 30-8-5. Ventilators 30-9. Stairs 30-9-1. Technical terms for stairs 30-9-2. Types of stairs 30-9-3. Stairs of different materials 30-10. Floors and flooring 30-10-1. Types of floors 30-10-2. Timber floors 30-10-3. Composite floors 30-10-4. Materials used for flooring 30-11. Roofs 30-11-1. Requirements of a good roof 30-11-2. Classification of roofs 30-11-3. Pitched or sloping roofs 30-11-4. Types of pitched roofs 30-12. Lintels 30-12-1. Types of lintels Questions 30 Questions asked in GTU Exams Section V : WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT Chapter 31 ELEMENTARY HYDROLOGY 31-1. General 31-2. Importance of water supply project 31-3. Elementary hydrology 31-4. Hydrosphere 31-5. Hydrological cycle 31-6. Water exchange 31-7. Transport of water 31-8. Specific terms of hydrology Questions 31 Questions asked in GTU Exams Chapter 32 WATER REQUIREMENTS AND ITS CONSERVATION 32-1. Water requirements 32-2. Factors affecting rate of water demand 32-3. Water requirements for buildings other than residences 32-4. Water requirements for irrigation 32-5. Conservation of water resources Questions 32 Chapter 33 SOURCES OF WATER 33-1. General 33-2. Surface runoff 33-3. Precipitation 33-4. Measurement of rainfall 33-5. Rainfall 33-6. Types of sources of water 33-7. Surface sources of water 33-8. Watershed development 33-9. Salient features of reservoir and dam design 33-10. Earthen Dams (rolled fill type) 33-11. Underground sources of water 33-12. Forms of underground sources Questions 33 Questions asked in GTU Exams Section VI : TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING Chapter 34 INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING 34-1. General 34-2. Significance of transport in national development 34-3. Modes or ways of transport 34-4. Surface transportation 34-4-1. Roadways or highways 34-4-2. Development of roads in India 34-4-3. Characteristics of road transport 34-4-4. Advantages of roads 34-4-5. Importance of roads in India 34-4-6. Requirements of an ideal road 34-4-7. Scope of highway and transportation engineering 34-4-8. Objects of highway planning 34-4-9. Classification of highways 34-4-10. Typical cross-sections of roads 34-4-11. Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) projects 34-4-12. Boot (build, Own, Operate and Transfer) projects 34-4-13. Difference between bot and boot projects 34-5. Railways 34-5-1. Characteristics of railways 34-5-2. Advantages of railways 34-5-3. Trends in modern railways 34-6. Waterways 34-6-1. General 34-6-2. Advantages of water transportation 34-6-3. Disadvantages of water transportation 34-6-4. Classification of harbours 34-6-5. Ports 34-6-6. Requirements of a good port 34-7. Air transport or aviation 34-7-1. Advantages of air transport 34-7-2. Disadvantages of air transport Questions 34 Questions asked in GTU Exams Chapter 35 TRAFFIC ENGINEERING 35-1. General 35-2. Objects of traffic engineering 35-3. Traffic surveys 35-3-1. Accident survey 35-3-2. Origin and destination survey 35-3-3. Parking survey 35-3-4. Spot speed survey 35-3-5. Speed and delay survey 35-3-6. Traffic volume survey 35-4. Road accidents 35-4-1. Causes of road accidents 35-4-2. Measures to prevent road accidents 35-5. Parking 35-6. Methods of parking 35-7. Traffic congestion 35-8. Traffic control 35-9. One-way streets 35-9-1. Advantages of one-way streets 35-9-2. Disadvantages of one-way streets 35-10. Road junctions or intersections 35-11. Types of intersections 35-11-1. At-grade intersections 35-11-2. Grade separations 35-12. Traffic control devices 35-12-1. Road markings 35-12-2. Road signs 35-12-3. Traffic signals 35-12-4. Speed breakers 35-13. Peculiarities of traffic Questions 35 Questions asked in GTU Exams Chapter 36 TYPICAL TRAFFIC SIGNS 36-1. Mandatory/regulatory signs 36-2. Typical cautionary/warning signs 36-3. Informatory signs 36-4. Traffic lights Appendix I GTU EXAMINATION PAPERS

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