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SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

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Length170 mm
Thickness32 mm
Height235 mm
Weight930 gm
AuthorHasmukh P. Oza, Gautam H. Oza
Pages724 + 32 = 756
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789385039263
SizeCrown
Edition3rd
Year 2016

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Soil_Mach_Foundation_Engineering

SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERINGHasmukh P. Oza, Gautam H. OzaEdition : 3rd Edition : 2016 ISBN : 9789385039263 Size : 170 mm × 235 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 724 + 32 = 756` 400.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis book is an outcome of extensive experiences of practicing engineers who have worked in the professional field as well as those of research and teaching. The students and the practicing engineers, through the book, can share the knowledge and experience acquired during their long professional careers. An engineer must know the basic design aspects even if he opts to be a construction engineer or a manager and, more so if he prefers to be a designer or a research worker. This has been kept in view. The entire subject matter is treated in following 5 parts: Part I : General and Index Properties; Part II : Derived Properties; Part III : Field Investigations; Part IV : Designs; Part V : Miscellaneous. Keeping in mind the technological advancement and changing techniques, new chapters on Instrumentation, Shallow Foundations, Deep Foundations, Tiebacks and Anchors, Reinforced Earth, Slabs on Grade, and Soil Stabilization have been added in this edition. Also included are some useful case histories and a history in brief of Soil Mechanics. Theoretical analysis has been presented with clear formulation of the underlying assumptions. Equations have generally been developed from the first principles and illustrated by suitable examples. Laboratory tests have been briefly described for understanding the testing procedures and for the appreciation of their merits. Field tests and their essential correlations are given in so far as they are useful to a design engineer. Following Salient features should facilitate better understanding of the related matter of the book: * 317 Neatly Drawn Self Explanatory Figures; * 51 Photographs; * 173 Useful Tables * 90 Illustrative Worked Examples * 264 Exercises at the ends of chapters. Other cogent information has been included in the form of new Appendices. Systéme Internationale d’Unités, generally referred to as SI Units, has been introduced in the Appendix VI. And, the relevant Indian Standards have been grouped together in Appendix VII. These should be useful to the students as well as to the practicing engineers. The book fully covers the syllabii of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering for Civil Engineering students preparing for the Degree courses and also partly covers the post-graduate curriculum of almost all the Indian Universities. It will be useful to students of Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It is, nevertheless, written with a design bias and it is intended that this book is a reliable and useful companion in professional career.CONTENTPart I : GENERAL AND INDEX PROPERTIES 1 : ROCKS 2 : soils 3 : SOIL PARTICLES 4 : DRY SOIL 5 : SOIL MOISTURE 6 : UNIT WEIGHT 7 : SOIL CLASSIFICATION Part II : DERIVED PROPERTIES 8 : PERMEABILITY 9 : SEEPAGE AND UPLIFT 10 : DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE 11 : COMPRESSIBILITY AND CONSOLIDATION 12 : SHEAR STRENGTH 13 : LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SHEAR STRENGTH 14 : EARTH PRESSURES 15 : BEARING CAPACITY Part III : FIELD INVESTIGATIONS 16 : SITE INVESTIGATION 17 : FIELD EQUIPMENT 18 : FIELD TESTS 19 : INSTRUMENTATION Part IV : DESIGNS 20 : EARTH RETAINING WALLS 21 : CUTS AND EMBANKMENTS 22 : FOUNDATIONS - GENERAL 23 : SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS – FOOTINGS AND RAFTS 24 : DEEP FOUNDATIONS – PILES AND UNDER REAMED PILES 25 : TIEBACKS AND ANCHORS 26 : MACHINE FOUNDATIONS 27 : ROADS AND RUNWAYS 28 : SLABS ON GRADE 29 : REINFORCED EARTH 30 : DAMS Part V : MISCELLANEOUS 31 : DRAINAGE AND DEWATERING 32 : SWELLING SOILS 33 : SOIL STABILIZATION 34 : SOME CASE HISTORIES 35 : THE STORY OF SOIL MECHANICS Appendices REFERENCES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS indexSOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING Detailed ContentsPART I : GENERAL AND INDEX PROPERTIES Chapter 1 ROCKS 1-1 The Origin 1-2 Identifying Rocks 1-3 Indian Geology Exercise 1 Chapter 2 SOILS 2-1 Particle Size 2-2 Formative Classification Exercise 2 Chapter 3 SOIL PARTICLES 3-1 Particle – Structure and Shape 3-2 Soil Structure 3-3 Particle-size Determination 3-4 Indian Standard Sieves 3-5 Stokes’ Law 3-6 Water as Medium 3-7 Sedimentation Analysis 3-8 Particle-size Distribution Curves 3-9 Illustrative Examples Exercise 3 Chapter 4 DRY SOIL 4-1 Dry Unit Weight 4-2 Void Ratio 4-3 Porosity 4-4 Relative Density 4-5 Specific Gravity 4-6 Illustrative Examples Exercise 4 Chapter 5 SOIL MOISTURE 5-1 Surface Area 5-2 Hygroscopic Moisture 5-3 Capillary Water 5-4 Capillary Force 5-5 Gravitational Water 5-6 Submerged Unit Weight 5-7 Quick-sand and Boiling 5-8 Determination of Moisture Content 5-9 Saturation 5-10 Atterberg Limits 5-11 Determination of Atterberg Limits Exercise 5 Chapter 6 UNIT WEIGHT 6-1 Measurement of Unit Weight 6-2 Compaction 6-3 Compaction Measurement 6-4 Illustrative Examples Exercise 6 Chapter 7 SOIL CLASSIFICATION 7-1 Methods of Classifying Soils 7-2 Triangle Textural Classification 7-3 General Engineering Classification Exercise 7 PART II : DERIVED PROPERTIES Chapter 8 PERMEABILITY 8-1 Darcy’s Law 8-2 Poiseuille’s Law 8-3 Factors Influencing Permeability 8-4 Permeability of Stratified Layers of Soils 8-5 Laboratory Determination of Permeability 8-6 Constant Head Permeameter 8-7 Variable Head Permeameter 8-8 Field Determination of Permeability 8-9 Illustrative Examples Exercise 8 Chapter 9 SEEPAGE AND UPLIFT 9-1 Laplace Equations 9-2 Buoyancy 9-3 Uplift on Gravity Dams 9-4 Uplift in Bridge Piers 9-5 Uplift in Dock Walls 9-6 Uplift in Dry Docks Exercise 9 Chapter 10 DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE 10-1 Contact Stresses 10-2 Contact Pressures for Eccentric Loads 10-3 Linear Pressure Distribution 10-4 Kögler Method of Pressure Distribution 10-5 Boussinesq Theory of Pressure Distribution 10-6 Westergaard Equations 10-7 Mindlin’s Theory of Pressure Distribution 10-8 Experimental Results 10-9 Illustrative Examples Exercise 10 Chapter 11 COMPRESSIBILITY AND CONSOLIDATION 11-1 Terms in Common Use 11-2 Elastic Compression 11-3 Compressibility 11-4 Modulus of Volume Change 11-5 Compression Index 11-6 Illustrative Examples 11-7 Process of Consolidation 11-8 Illustrative Example 11-9 Terzaghi Theory of Consolidation 11-10 Application of Terzaghi Theory of Consolidation 11-11 Illustrative Example 11-12 Laboratory Tests for Consolidation 11-13 Settlement Correction 11-14 Russian Method for Estimating Settlement 11-15 Illustrative Examples Exercise 11 Chapter 12 SHEAR STRENGTH 12-1 Stress Notation 12-2 Strain Notation 12-3 Mohr’s Circle 12-4 Shear Resistance 12-5 Coulomb’s Law 12-6 Shear Failure and Mohr’s Circles 12-7 Effective Stress and Neutral Stress 12-8 Modified Coulomb’s Law 12-9 Estimation of Shear Strength Parameters 12-10 Strength Theories 12-11 Illustrative Examples Exercise 12 Chapter 13 LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF SHEAR STRENGTH 13-1 Shear Box Test 13-2 Unconfined Compression Test 13-3 Triaxial Compression Test 13-4 Vane Shear Test 13-5 Factors Influencing the Tests 13-6 Selection of Test and Technique 13-7 Review of Test Results 13-8 Illustrative Examples Exercise 13 Chapter 14 EARTH PRESSURES 14-1 Earth Pressure at Rest 14-2 Illustrative Example 14-3 Earth Pressures 14-4 Illustrative Example 14-5 Rankine’s Theory 14-6 Coulomb-Résal – Bell Theory 14-7 Illustrative Example 14-8 Wall Friction 14-9 Coulomb’s Wedge Theory 14-10 Illustrative Example 14-11 Graphical Methods – Cohesionless Backfills 14-12 Coulomb’s General Solution for Cohesionless Backfill 14-13 Curved Surfaces of Rupture 14-14 Illustrative Example 14-15 General Solutions for Cohesive – Frictional Backfill 14-16 Illustrative Example 14-17 Pressures on Lateral Supports in Open Cuts Exercise 14 Chapter 15 BEARING CAPACITY 15-1 Definitions 15-2 Safe Bearing Capacity According to Soil Type 15-3 Analytical Methods for Calculating Bearing Capacity 15-4 By the Theory of Elasticity 15-5 With Earth Pressure Theory 15-6 According to the Theory of Plasticity – Prandtl’s Theory 15-7 Terzaghi’s Theory for Shallow Foundations 15-8 Illustrative Example 15-9 Brinch Hansen’s Contribution 15-10 Illustrative Examples 15-11 Field Tests 15-12 Deep Foundations 15-13 Factor of Safety 15-14 Permissible Settlements Exercise 15 PART III : FIELD INVESTIGATIONS Chapter 16 SITE INVESTIGATION 16-1 Objective 16-2 Scope 16-3 Reconnaissance 16-4 Earlier Uses 16-5 Disposition of Pits and Bores 16-6 Depth of Foundation 16-7 Ground-Water Table 16-8 Methods of Sampling 16-9 Methods of Sub-soil Exploration 16-10 Special Programme of Investigation Exercise 16 Chapter 17 FIELD EQUIPMENT 17-1 Exploratory Drilling 17-2 Undisturbed Sampling Exercise 17 Chapter 18 FIELD TESTS 18-1 EMPIRICAL FIELD TESTS 18-2 Standard Penetration Test 18-3 Illustrative Example 18-4 Cone Penetration Test 18-5 CBR Test 18-6 DIRECT FIELD TESTS 18-7 Plate Load Test 18-8 Vane Shear Test 18-9 Permeability Test 18-10 Field Density Test 18-11 Pressuremeter Test (PMT) Exercise 18 Chapter 19 INSTRUMENTATION 19-1 Purpose of Instrumentation 19-2 Deciding for Instrumentation 19-3 Instruments 19-4 Applications 19-5 Guidelines for Instrumentation Exercise 19 PART IV : DESIGNS Chapter 20 EARTH RETAINING WALLS 20-1 Forces Acting on an Earth Retaining Wall 20-2 Stability Considerations 20-3 Earth Pressures 20-4 Drainage and Weep Holes 20-5 Hydraulic Pressure 20-6 Selection of Type of the Wall 20-7 Gravity Walls 20-8 Illustrative Examples 20-9 Reinforced Concrete Walls 20-10 Sheet Pile Wall 20-11 Design of Anchored Sheet Pile Wall 20-12 Illustrative Examples Exercise 20 Chapter 21 CUTS AND EMBANKMENTS 21-1 Cohesionless Soils 21-2 Illustrative Example 21-3 Cohesive Soils 21-4 Stability Analysis 21-5 Natural Slopes 21-6 Illustrative Examples Exercise 21 Chapter 22 FOUNDATIONS – GENERAL 22-1 Preliminary Selection of the Type of Foundation 22-2 Distribution of Pressure 22-3 Bearing Capacity 22-4 Settlement 22-5 Uplift 22-6 Materials of Construction and Environmental Corrosion 22-7 Foundation Types 22-8 Piers and Caissons 22-9 Special Techniques Exercise 22 Chapter 23 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS – FOOTINGS AND RAFTS 23-1 Footings 23-2 Illustrative Example 23-3 Raft Foundations 23-4 Illustrative Example Exercise 23 Chapter 24 DEEP FOUNDATIONS – PILES AND UNDER REAMED PILES 24-1 Piles – General 24-2 Timber Piles 24-3 Illustrative Examples 24-4 Precast Reinforced Concrete Piles 24-5 Illustrative Examples 24-6 Steel Piles 24-7 Bored Piles and Shell Piles 24-8 Under Reamed Piles 24-9 Bored Compaction Piles 24-10 Large Diameter Bored Piles Exercise 24 Chapter 25 TIEBACKS AND ANCHORS 25-1 Tiebacks 25-2 Anchors with Normal Pressure Grouts 25-3 High Pressure Grouts 25-4 Anchors with High Pressure Grouts 25-5 Tendons 25-6 Creep and Cyclic Loading 25-7 Corrosion Protection 25-8 Uplift Exercise 25 Chapter 26 MACHINE FOUNDATIONS 26-1 Types of Machine Foundations 26-2 General Requirement of Machine Foundations 26-3 Design Parameters 26-4 Physical Properties of Elastic Base – Soil Below Foundation 26-5 Expression for Spring Stiffness of Elastic Supports 26-6 Couzens’ Table for Weight of Foundations 26-7 Foundations for Impact Type Machine 26-8 Illustrative Example 26-9 Block Type Machine Foundations 26-10 Single-Mass Spring System 26-11 Semi-empirical Design of a Block Foundation as a Single-mass Spring System 26-12 Illustrative Example 26-13 Foundations for Reciprocating Machines 26-14 Foundation for Heavy Rotary Machines 26-15 Frequencies and Permissible Amplitudes (For Reciprocating and Rotary Machines) 26-16 Foundations for High Speed Rotary Machines 26-17 Other Machines 26-18 Constructional Aspects / Construction Considerations 26-19 Vibration Isolation Exercise 26 Chapter 27 ROADS AND RUNWAYS 27-1 Flexible Road Pavements 27-1-1 History of the Development of Design Methods 27-1-2 Present Design Methods 27-1-3 Design in Practice 27-1-4 Design Based on Traffic – As per IRC 27-2 Illustrative Examples 27-3 Rigid Road Pavements 27-3-1 Estimation of Total Thickness 27-3-2 Simplified Approach 27-3-3 Westergaard Theory 27-3-4 Equivalent Single-wheel Load 27-3-5 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction 27-3-6 Warping Stresses in Concrete Pavement 27-3-7 Suggested Thicknesses 27-3-8 Mud Pumping 27-3-9 Design of Rigid Pavements 27-3-10 Design of Joints 27-4 Illustrative Examples 27-5 Load Distribution Theory of Road Pavements 27-5-1 Concrete Pavements 27-5-2 Pavement for Load Distribution 27-5-3 Initial Pressure Distribution 27-5-4 Conclusions 27-6 Illustrative Examples 27-7 Runway Pavements 27-7-1 Equivalent Single-Wheel Loads 27-7-2 Gear Arrangements or Configurations 27-7-3 Coverages 27-7-4 Designs of Runway Pavements 27-8 Illustrative Example 27-9 History of Concrete Roads and Concrete Roads in India 27-9-1 History of Concrete Roads in Europe 27-9-2 History of Concrete Roads in USA 27-9-3 Concrete Roads in India 27-10 Subgrade Improvement 27-10-1 Soil Admixture 27-10-2 Lime or Cement Admixture 27-10-3 Thermal Treatment 27-10-4 Sand Piles 27-10-5 Water Proofing 27-11 Points for Design of Pavements on Expansive Soils 27-12 Geotextiles 27-13 Rehablilitation of Existing Pavements – Overlays 27-13-1 Bituminous Overlays 27-13-2 Cement Concrete Overlays Exercise 27 Chapter 28 SLABS ON GRADE 28-1 Forces in Slabs on Grade 28-2 Illustrative Examples 28-3 Joints in Slabs on Grade 28-4 Curling 28-5 Reinforced Slab on Grade 28-6 Slab on Grade as Foundation Exercise 28 Chapter 29 REINFORCED EARTH 29-1 Materials for Reinforced Earth 29-2 Design of Reinforced Structures 29-3 Construction of Reinforced Earth Structures Exercise 29 Chapter 30 DAMS 30-1 Introduction 30-2 Trends in Design 30-3 Seepage Analysis 30-4 Stability 30-5 Foundation Treatment 30-6 Causes of Failure Exercise 30 PART V : MISCELLANEOUS Chapter 31 DRAINAGE AND DEWATERING 31-1 External Drainage 31-2 Internal Drainage 31-3 Dewatering Exercise 31 Chapter 32 SWELLING SOILS 32-1 Causes of Swelling 32-2 Origin of Swelling Soils 32-3 Prevalence of Swelling Soils 32-4 Identification Tests 32-5 Swell Pressures 32-6 Factors Influencing Swell Pressure 32-7 Swell Pressure and Moisture Content 32-8 Shearing Resistance 32-9 Treatment of Expansive Soils 32-10 Building Foundations 32-11 Road Subgrade and Embankment 32-12 Canals 32-13 Earth Dams Exercise 32 Chapter 33 SOIL Stabilization 33-1 Soil Stabilization for Types of Soils 33-2 Surface Compaction 33-3 Deep Stabilization 33-4 Drainage 33-5 Grouting Exercise 33 Chapter 34 SOME CASE HISTORIES 34-1 Retaining Walls 34-2 Foundations Chapter 35 THE STORY OF SOIL MECHANICS 35-1 The Early Period 35-2 Mediaeval Times 35-3 Pre-modern Era 35-4 Present Phase 35-5 The Future Course APPENDICES Appendix I ANGLES OF INTERNAL FRICTION, UNIT WEIGHTS AND LIQUIDITY FACTORS OF SOME MATERIALS Appendix II SOIL BEARING CAPACITIES, PROPERTIES OF GRANULAR AND COHESIVE MATERIALS Appendix III ENQUIRY DOCUMENT FOR GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS Appendix IV METRIC CONVERSIONS Appendix V BRITISH AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS Appendix VI SI UNITS Appendix VII SOME RELEVANT CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS (OF BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS AND OF INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS) Appendix VIII THE GIANTS OF SOIL MECHANICS REFERENCES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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