ESTIMATING, COSTING AND VALUATION View larger

ESTIMATING, COSTING AND VALUATION

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Length170 mm
Thickness40 mm
Height235 mm
Weight1145 gm
AuthorRangwala
Pages896 + 24 = 920
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789385039058
SizeCrown
Edition17th
Year 2017

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ESTIMATING, COSTING AND VALUATION[PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE and quantity surveying]RangawalaEdition : 17th Edition : 2017 ISBN : 9789385039058 Size : 170 mm × 235 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 896 + 24 = 920` 425.00ABOUT THE BOOKThe entire subject of Estimating, Costing, Professional Practice, Quantity Surveying and Valuation is divided in two parts: Part I : Professional practice and Quantity Surveying; Part II : Valuation. This edition is thoroughly revised, extensively enlarged and completely modified. Each topic of the book has been arranged in such a way that reader is empowered with an in-depth knowledge of the subject. In this revised and enlarged edition four new chapters have been added. Plenty of new matter, numerous examples and figures have been added as per the latest syllabus of different universities of India. The permutation of some of the sporadic matter have been made to collocate the topics in order. The outline of the book is: Chapter 1 : Introduction to the subject of Estimating and Costing Chapter 2 : Consists the Types of Estimates Chapter 3 : Elucidates Taking Out Quantities Chapter 4 : Expounds Mode and Units of Measurements Chapter 5 : Discuss about the Specifications and provides 66 model specifications of common civil engineering items. Chapter 6 : Market Survey, explains main components of the estimates i.e., rates of materials, labour and construction equipments used. Chapter 7 : Rate Analysis of 98 typical items Chapters 8 to 14 gives 64 variety of Practical Estimates of Various Types of Buildings; Different R.C.C. Structures; Formwork; Roof and Steel Structures; Water Supply and Sanitary Works; Bridges; Culverts; Piers; Irrigation Works; Road Works. Chapters 15 to 18 gives Contracts, Tenders, Conditions of Contracts, Arbitration, Accounts. Chapters 19 gives knowledge of Construction Management, Planning, CPM, PERT, Materials Management etc. Chapters 20 to 29 gives various topics of Valuation such as Cost, Price, Value, Mortgage, Freehold and Leasehold Properties, Outgoings and Net Income, Easements, Valuation of Licenced Premises, Depreciation, Standard Rent, Methods of Valuation, Valuation Tables etc. Appendix provides 101 Practical Questions with Answers for viva-voce. It is hoped that the book will satisfy the needs of the Civil Engineering students preparing for the Degree examinations of almost all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional Examinations. It should also be of an immense help to the practising Civil Engineers.CONTENTPART I : PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND QUANTITY SURVEYING 1 : Introduction 2 : Types of estimates 3 : Taking Out Quantities 4 : Modes and units of measurements 5 : Specifications 6 : Market survey 7 : Rate analysis 8 : Estimates of various Types of buildings 9 : Estimates of different R.C.C. Structures and formwork 10 : Estimates of roofs and steel structures 11 : Estimates of water supply and sanitary works 12 : ESTIMATES OF BRIDGES, CULVERTS AND PIERS 13 : Estimates of Irrigation Works 14 : Estimates of Road works 15 : Contracts and tenders 16 : Conditions of Contract 17 : Arbitration 18 : Accounts 19 : CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PART II : VALUATION 20 : Cost, price And Value 21 : Mortgage, freehold and leasehold properties 22 : Outgoings and Net income 23 : Easements 24 : Valuation of Licenced premises 25 : Depreciation 26 : Standard rent 27 : Methods of Valuation 28 : Miscellaneous topics 29 : Valuation tables Appendix: practical questions IndexESTIMATING, COSTING AND VALUATION Detailed ContentsPART I : PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND QUANTITY SURVEYING Chapter 1: Introduction 1-1. General 1-2. Estimate and estimating 1-3. Quantity survey 1-4. Essentials of an estimator 1-5. Requirements of an estimator 1-6. Accompaniments of an estimate 1-7. Uses of an estimate 1-8. Financial implications 1-9. Cost planning 1-10. Spot items 1-11. Prime cost and provisional sum 1-12. Provisional quantities 1-13. Day work 1-14. Contingencies 1-15. Work-charged establishment 1-16. Regular establishment 1-17. Schedule of rates (S.O.R.) 1-18. Estimated cost and construction cost 1-19. Water and electric consumption charges 1-20. Overhead charges Questions 1 Chapter 2: Types of estimates 2-1. Types of estimates 2-2. Detailed estimate 2-3. Types of detailed estimates 2-3-1. Quantity estimate or item rate estimate 2-3-2. Revised estimate 2-3-3. Supplementary estimate 2-3-4. Revised and supplementary estimate 2-3-5. Complete estimate 2-3-6. Annual maintenance and repair estimate 2-3-7. Special repair estimate 2-4. Approximate estimate 2-5. Approximate methods of costing for various structures 2-5-1. Methods of approximate costing for Buildings 2-5-2. Methods of approximate costing for Steel bridges 2-5-3. Methods of approximate costing for R.C.C. retaining walls 2-5-4. Methods of approximate costing for Highways and roads 2-5-5. Methods of approximate costing for Dams 2-5-6. Methods of approximate costing for Culverts 2-5-7. Methods of approximate costing for Irrigation canals 2-5-8. Water supply and sanitary projects Questions 2 Chapter 3: Taking Out Quantities 3-1. General 3-2. Meaning of the term taking out quantities 3-3. Methods of taking out quantities 3-4. Methods of computing quantities 3-4-1. Centre-line method 3-4-2. Crossings method 3-4-3. Out-to-out and in-to-in method or long wall and short wall method 3-5. Deductions for opening in masonry 3-6. Theory of arch 3-7. Volume of concrete in trapezoidal footing Questions 3 Chapter 4: Modes and units of measurements 4-1. Introduction 4-2. Principles for Units of measurements 4-3. General rules for measurements 4-4. Degree of accuracy 4-5. Modes of measurement for different items 4-5-1. Preliminaries 4-5-2. Excavation 4-5-3. Concrete work 4-5-4. Brickwork 4-5-5. Stonework 4-5-6. Woodwork 4-5-7. Plaster work 4-5-8. Pointing 4-5-9. Floor finishes 4-5-10. Whitewashing, colour-washing and distempering 4-5-11. Painting 4-5-12. Steel and iron work 4-5-13. Water supply connections 4-5-14. Drainage connections 4-5-15. Road-work 4-6. Units of measurements Questions 4 Chapter 5: Specifications 5-1. General 5-2. Definition 5-3. Objects of specifications 5-4. Importance of specifications 5-5. Use of specifications 5-6. Types of specifications 5-6-1. Brief specifications 5-6-2. Detailed specifications 5-7. Classification of specifications 5-8. Design of specifications 5-9. Important aspects of the design of a specification 5-10. Principles of specification writing 5-11. Sources of information 5-12. Typical specifications 5-12-1. Specification for excavation 5-12-2. Specification for removal of water from foundations 5-12-3. Specification for damp proof course 5-12-4. Specification for brickbat lime concrete for foundation in proportion (1:2:4) 5-12-5. Specification for 1st class brickwork in c.m. (1:6) 5-12-6. Specification for timber doors and windows 5-12-7. Specifications for steel doors and windows 5-12-8. Specification for bricknogged partition in c.m. (1:4) 5-12-9. Specification for random rubble masonry 5-12-10. Specification for coursed rubble masonry 5-12-11. Specification for ashlar masonry in c.m. (1:3) 5-12-12. Specification for R.C.C. work proportion (1:2:4) 5-12-13. Specification for reinforced brick-work for slab of one brick depth 5-12-14. Specification for terrazo finish 5-12-15. Specification for marble flooring 5-12-16. Specification for polished Kotah machine cut stone paving 5-12-17. Specification for brick on edge flooring 5-12-18. Specification for cement concrete flooring in proportion 5-12-19. Specification for pointing in c.m. (1:1) 5-12-20. Specification for 20 mm sand faced cement plaster 5-12-21. Specification for 18 mm thick single coat mala plaster 5-12-22. Specification for whitewashing in three coats 5-12-23. Specification for painting in three coats 5-12-24. Specification for French polish 5-12-25. Specification for wax polish 5-12-26. Specification for suspended ceiling of plaster of Paris 5-12-27. Specification for Manglore-tiled roof 5-12-28. Specification for cast-iron articles 5-12-29. Specification for fixing asbestos cement corrugated roofing sheets on steel purlins 5-12-30. Specification for fixing 1 mm thick corrugated galvanized iron sheets on wooden purlins 5-12-31. Specification for driving precast R.C.C. piles 5-12-32. Specification for uncased cast-in-situ R.C.C. piles 5-12-33. Specification for providing and laying 150 mm diameter S.W. pipe 5-12-34. Specification for providing and laying 900 mm diameter R.C.C. hume pipe 5-12-35. Specification for 160 mm water-bound macadam road for heavy traffic 5-12-36. Specification for 50 mm full grout surface on an existing road 5-12-37. Specification for earthwork for road in embankment 5-12-38. Specification for lightening conductor 5-12-39. Specification for cast iron pipes 5-12-40. Specification for supplying and fixing Indian type W.C. with foot rest 5-12-41. Specification for providing and fixing European type W.C. 5-12-42. Specification for providing and fixing wash basin including all fittings 5-12-43. Specifications for supplying, laying and fixing galvanized iron pipes 5-13. Specifications in outlines 5-13-1. Specification for the brickwork in arch in c.m. (1:4) 5-13-2. Specification for 2nd class brickwork in c.m. (1:6) 5-13-3. Specification for 3rd class brickwork in c.m. (1:6) 5-13-4. Specification for the brick partition wall in c.m. (1:4) 5-13-5. Specification for reinforced brickwork for walls in c.m. (1:3) 5-13-6. Specification for coursed rubble masonry I sort in c.m. (1:6) 5-13-7. Specification for coursed rubble masonry II sort in c.m. (1:6) 5-13-8. Specification for coursed rubble masonry III sort in c.m. (1:6) 5-13-9. Specification for R.C.C. slab 12 cm thick prop. (1:2:4) 5-13-10. Specification for R.C.C. beam prop. (1:2:4) 5-13-11. Specification for R.C.C. stair of 1 metre width prop. (1:2:4) 5-13-12. Specification for 40 mm thick Indian patent stone prop. (1:2:4) 5-13-13. Specification for wooden cupboards 5-13-14. Specification for 12 mm thick cement plaster in c.m. (1:4) 5-13-15. Specification for manhole of size 1 m × 1 m and depth not exceeding 2 m 5-13-16. Specification for centrifugal pumps 5-13-17. Specification for mosaic tiles flooring 5-13-18. Specification for 80 mm full grout surface on existing road 5-13-19. Specification for 50 mm thick asphaltic concrete road surface 5-13-20. Specification for 150 mm thick cement concrete road (1:2:4) laid in single layer 5-13-21. Specification for cement macadam road on existing W.B. road surface 5-13-22. Specification for fabricating steel roof truss by welding 5-13-23. Specification for earthwork for road in cutting Questions 5 Chapter 6: Market survey 6-1. General 6-2. Significance of market survey 6-3. Rates of materials 6-4. Rates of labour 6-5. Construction equipments 6-5-1. Importance 6-5-2. Selection of equipments 6-5-3. Economic life of construction equipments 6-5-4. Sources of equipments 6-5-5. Various types of construction equipments 6-5-5-1. Excavating and earth moving equipments 6-5-5-2. Earth compacting equipments 6-5-5-3. Hauling equipments 6-5-5-4. Hoisting equipments 6-5-5-5. Conveying equipments 6-5-5-6. Pumping equipments 6-5-5-7. Concrete construction equipments 6-5-5-8. Drilling equipments 6-5-5-9. Road making equipments 6-5-6. Tools used in brick masonry, stone masonry and plaster work Questions 6 Chapter 7: Rate analysis 7-1. Definition 7-2. Purposes of rate analysis 7-3. Importance of rate analysis 7-4. Essentials of rate analysis 7-5. Schedule of rates (S.O.R.) 7-6. Standard costing 7-7. Task work per day 7-8. Rate analysis of typical items 7-8-1. Excavation for foundation in ordinary soft soil including throwing excavated earth within the lead of 30 m and lift of 1.50 m 7-8-2. Sand filling in plinth 7-8-3. Brickbat cement concrete (B.B.C.C.) proportion(1:6:12) for foundations and plinth 7-8-4. Brickbat cement concrete (B.B.C.C.) proportion (1:5:10) for foundations and plinth 7-8-5. Brickbat cement concrete (B.B.C.C.) proportion (1:4:8) for foundations and plinth 7-8-6. Brickbat cement concrete for foundations proportion (1:3:6) for foundations and plinth 7-8-7. 65 mm thick brickbat coba concrete proportion (1:6:12) under terrace floors 7-8-8. Brickbat lime concrete (B.B.L.C.) proportion (1:2:4) for foundations and plinth 7-8-9. Plain cement concrete (P.C.C.) proportion (1:6:12) below column footing in foundations 7-8-10. Plain cement concrete proportion (1:4:8) below column footing in foundations 7-8-11. Plain cement concrete (P.C.C.) proportion (1:3:6) 7-8-12. Plain cement concrete (P.C.C.) proportion (1:2:4) M15 7-8-13. Plain cement concrete (P.C.C.) proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 7-8-14. Plain cement concrete (P.C.C.) proportion (1:1:2) M25 7-8-15. Providing and laying Mild steel reinforcement 7-8-16. Providing and laying HYSD steel reinforcement 7-8-17. 12 cm R.C.C. slab proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-18. R.C.C. beams proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-19. R.C.C. columns proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-20. R.C.C. Lintels proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-21. R.C.C. footing proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-22. R.C.C. coping proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-23. R.C.C. plinth beam proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-24. 112.5 mm thick R.C.C. cantilever slab proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-25. Average 75 mm thick R.C.C. weathershed proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-26. 1.0 m wide R.C.C. step proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-27. Average 75 mm thick R.C.C. paradi proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-28. Average 125 mm thick R.C.C. canopy slab proportion (1:2:4) M15 with steel reinforcement 7-8-29. 12 cm R.C.C. slab proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-30. R.C.C. beam proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-31. R.C.C. column proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-32. R.C.C. lintel proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement0 7-8-33. R.C.C. footing proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-34. R.C.C. coping proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-35. R.C.C. plinth beam proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-36. 112.5 mm thick R.C.C. cantilever slab proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-37. Average 75 mm thick R.C.C. weathershed proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-38. 1.0 m wide R.C.C. step proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-39. Average 75 mm thick R.C.C. Pardi proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-40. Average 125 mm thick R.C.C. Canopy slab proportion (1:1.5:3) M20 with steel reinforcement 7-8-41. 1st class brickwork in cement mortar (1:6) upto plinth using modular bricks 7-8-42. 1st class brickwork in c.m. (1:6) upto plinth using conventional bricks 7-8-43. 1st class brickwork in c.m. (1:8) upto plinth 7-8-44. 10 cm thick brick partition wall in c.m. (1:4) for ground floor 7-8-45. Ashlar masonry in c.m. (1:6) for ground floor 7-8-46. Coursed rubble masonry in c.m. (1:6) for ground floor 7-8-47. Random rubble masonry in c.m. (1:6) for ground floor 7-8-48. Brickwork in arch with c.m. (1:3) using modular bricks 7-8-49. Honey comb brickwork for partition wall in c.m. (1:4) in superstructure 7-8-50. Cement mortar (1:1) (1 Cement : 1 Sand) 7-8-51. Cement mortar (1:2) (1 Cement : 2 Sand) 7-8-52. Cement mortar (1:3) (1 Cement : 3 Sand) 7-8-53. Cement mortar (1:4) (1 Cement : 4 Sand) 7-8-54. Cement mortar (1:5) (1 Cement : 5 Sand) 7-8-55. Cement mortar (1:6) (1 Cement : 6 Sand) 7-8-56. Lime mortar (1:2) (1 Lime Putty : 2 Fine Sand) 7-8-57. Mosaic tiles (precast terrazzo tiles) flooring on average 25 mm thick bedding of c.m. (1:4) 7-8-58. Mosaic tiles flooring on terrace 7-8-59. Mosaic tiles skirting 75 mm high 7-8-60. Polished Kotah stone flooring 7-8-61. Poilshed Kotah stone skirting 75 mm high 7-8-62. White glazed tiles flooring of size 150 mm × 150 mm 7-8-63. White glazed tiles in skirting, risers of step and dado on 12 mm thick rough cement plaster (1:3) base and joined with white cement slurry 7-8-64. 40 mm thick Indian patent stone in P.C.C. (1:2:4) 7-8-65. 62 mm thick I.P.S. with ironite finish, 50 mm thick P.C.C. (1:2:4) and 12 mm thick ironite finish 7-8-66. Rough Kotah stone flooring on average 40 mm thick bedding 7-8-67. Marble flooring 7-8-68. Marble skirting 75 mm high 7-8-69. 40 mm thick terrazo floor finish 7-8-70. Crazy Marble Stone Flooring 7-8-71. P.V.C. Tiles Flooring 7-8-72. Flooring of bricks on edge–top 25 mm in c.m. (1:1) and rest in c.m. (1:24) 7-8-73. Light weight thor concrete in proportion (1:6:36) (1 cement: 2 sand: 6 brickbats: 36 light weight thor) 7-8-74. 75 mm × 75 mm size cement grit vata in proportion (1:2:4) (volume per 10 m = 0.075 × 0.075 × 10 = 0.06 cu m) 7-8-75. Cut cement pointing in c.m. (1:1) 7-8-76. 12 mm thick cement plaster in c.m. (1:4) 7-8-77. 12 mm thick cement plaster in c.m. (1:3) 7-8-78. 18 mm thick single coat mala plaster in c.m. (1:4) 7-8-79. 20 mm thick double coat sand faced plaster with 1st coat in c.m. (1:4) and 2nd coat in c.m. (1:2) 7-8-80. 20 mm thick double coat sand faced plaster with 1st coat in c.m. (1:4) and 2nd coat in c.m. (1:1) 7-8-81. Whitewashing in three coats 7-8-82. Oil painting in three coats 7-8-83. Fully panelled double shutter wooden door of size 1.10 m × 2.00 m with brass fastenings and fixtures 7-8-84. Fully glazed double shutter window of size 1.00 m × 1.50 m with brass fastenings and fixtures 7-8-85. Manglore-tiled roof including wooden battens 45 cm × 25 mm at 350 mm centre to centre 7-8-86. Laying G.I. Pipe 40 mm diameter (Open) 7-8-87. Laying G.I. pipe 40 mm diameter (concealed) 7-8-88. Laying 150 mm diameter stoneware pipe 7-8-89. Washbasin of size 550 mm × 400 mm 7-8-90. Indian W.C. of size 580 mm with a pair of foot-rest 7-8-91. Suspended ceiling of Plaster of Paris including wooden main battens 100 mm × 50 mm at 80 cm c/c and cross battens 50 mm × 25 mm at 40 cm c/c 7-8-92. Rubble soling 12 cm thick 7-8-93. 150 mm thick water bound macadam road surface 7-8-94. 50 mm full grout surface on existing road surface 7-8-95. 20 mm thick Damp-poof course in c.m. (1:2) 7-8-96. 25 mm thick Damp-poof course in cement concrete proportion 7-8-97. Concealed electric light point of M.S. conduit 7-8-98. Concealed electric light point of P.V.C. conduit upto average height 3.05 m 7-9. Rates for some typical items of construction Questions 7 Chapter 8: Estimates of various Types of buildings 8-1. General 8-2. Estimate of simple steps 8-3. Estimate of corner steps 8-4. Estimate of a shop 8-5. Estimate of a servant’s quarter 8-6. Estimate of a sanitary block for a factory building 8-7. Estimate of a residential building 8-8. Estimate of a children’s library 8-9. Estimate of a compound wall 8-10. Estimate of a ginning factory 8-11. Typical estimates of buildings Chapter 9: Estimates of different R.C.C. Structures and formwork 9-1. General 9-2. Quantity of steel 9-3. Weights of steel bars 9-4. Number of bars or stirrups 9-5. Types of steel bars 9-6. Length of hook and bent-up bars 9-7. Bar bending schedule 9-8. Estimate of R.C.C. column with footing in prop. (1:1.5:3) 9-9. Estimate of R.C.C. Beam in proportion (1:1.5:3) 9-10. Estimate of R.C.C. beam in proportion (1:1.5:3) 9-11. Estimate of R.C.C. Weathershed with lintel for 1.20 m wide window in proportion (1:1.5:3) 9-12. Estimate of R.C.C. Slab in proportion (1:1.5:3) 9-13. Estimate of R.C.C. Floor in proportion (1:1.5:3) 9-14. Estimate of formwork for R.C.C. Works 9-15. Estimate of R.C.C. Retaining wall in proportion (1:1.5:3) 9-16. Estimate of R.C.C. Retaining wall 9-17. Estimate of a shed for cycles 9-18. Estimate of R.C.C. Staircase Chapter 10: Estimates of roofs and steel structures 10-1. General 10-2. Estimate of a roof with corrugated galvanized iron sheets 10-3. Estimate of a welded steel roof truss 10-4. Estimate of a steel stanchion with grillage foundation Chapter 11: Estimates of water supply and sanitary works 11-1. General 11-2. Estimate of an underground storage tank (only in bricks) 11-3. Estimate of brick cum R.C.C. type underground water storage tank 11-4. Estimate of an overhead R.C.C. water storage tank 11-5. Septic tanks 11-6. Design of a septic tank and a soak well 11-7. Estimate of a septic tank with soak well 11-8. Estimate of a septic tank 11-9. Estimate of a septic tank with three compartments Chapter 12: ESTIMATES OF BRIDGES, CULVERTS AND PIERS 12-1. General 12-2. Estimate of a pier 12-3. Estimate of a railway culvert 12-4. Estimate of a hume pipe culvert 12-5. Estimate of a hume pipe culvert 12-6. Estimate of a pipe culvert 12-7. Estimate of a slab culvert 12-8. Estimate of a road bridge 12-9. Estimate of a splayed wing wall Chapter 13: Estimates of Irrigation Works 13-1. General 13-2. Estimate of a cushion type fall 13-3. Estimate of a canal fall 13-4. Estimate of a hume pipe head regulator 13-5. Estimate of an earthen dam Chapter 14: Estimates of Road works 14-1. General 14-2. Computation of volume by corss-sections 14-2-1. Level section 14-2-2. Two-level section 14-2-3. Side hill two-level section 14-2-4. Three-level section 14-2-5. Multi-level section 14-3. Computation of volume of earthwork 14-3-1. Mid-sectional area method 14-3-2. Mean-sectional area method 14-3-3. Trapezoidal formula 14-3-4. Prismoidal formula 14-3-5. Spot levels 14-4. Typical estimates of road work 14-5. Estimate of Earthwork of a road in cutting 14-6. Estimate of Earthwork of a road partly in cutting and partly in embankment 14-7. Estimate of Earthwork of a road in plain 14-8. Estimate of earthwork for a road using mid-sectional area method 14-9. Estimate of earthwork for a road using mid-sectional area and mean sectional area method 14-10. Estimate of earthwork for a road using mid-sectional area method 14-11. Estimate of earthwork for a road using prismoidal formula 14-12. estimate of earthwork for a road using trapezoidal formula 14-13. Estimate of earthwork for a small pond 14-14. Estimate of earthwork for a road partly in cutting and partly in filling 14-15. Estimate of earthwork of a road in embankment 14-16. Estimate of earthwork of a curved road in embankment Chapter 15: Contracts and tenders CONTRACTS 15-1. Definitions 15-2. Essential requirements or elements of a valid contract 15-3. Trade usages 15-4. Forms of contract 15-4-1. Lump-sum contracts 15-4-2. Unit-price or item-rate contracts 15-4-3. Cost-plus or percentage contracts 15-4-4. Basic price contracts 15-5. Types of contracts 15-6. Termination of contracts 15-7. Contract documents 15-8. Qualification of contractors 15-8-1. Post-qualification of contractors 15-8-2. Pre-qualification of contractors 15-8-3. Independent contractor 15-8-4. Irresponsible contractor 15-9. Responsibilities of different agencies 15-10. Contract between owner and engineer 15-11. Work executed without a contract TENDERS 15-12. Meaning of tender 15-13. Classification of tenders 15-14. Tender notice 15-15. Advertisement of tender 15-16. Tender form 15-17. Mode of submission of tender 15-18. Opening of tenders 15-19. Scrutiny of tenders 15-20. Acceptance of tender 15-21. Revocation of tender 15-22. Unbalanced tender 15-23. Liquidated damages 15-24. Mobilization fund 15-25. Direct and indirect costs Questions 15 Chapter 16: Conditions of Contract 16-1. Definition 16-2. Object 16-3. Importance 16-4. Peculiarities 16-5. General provisions 16-6. Typical clauses of the conditions of contract 16-7 Escalation clause 16-8. Conditions of contract in outlines Questions 16 Chapter 17: Arbitration 17-1. General 17-2. Definition 17-3. Matters for reference to arbitration 17-4. Kinds of arbitration 17-5 Arbitrator 17-6. Appointment of arbitrators 17-7. Powers of an arbitrator 17-8. Disabilities of an arbitrator 17-9. Arbitration agreement 17-10. Revocation of arbitration agreement/denial of reference to arbitration 17-11. Process of arbitration 17-12. Award by an arbitrator 17-13. Conditions favourable for arbitration 17-14. Advantages of arbitration 17-15. Quick Dispute Resolution (QDR) methodology 17-16. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) under the code of civil procedure Questions 17 Chapter 18: Accounts 18-1. General 18-2. Stores 18-3. Difference between accounts of ‘Stock’ and ‘Tools and Plants’ 18-4. Issue notes 18-5. Note book 18-6. Vouchers 18-7. Hand receipts 18-8. Unstamped receipts 18-9. Receipt of money 18-10. Treasury challan 18-11. Cash book 18-12. Credit note 18-13. Work-abstract 18-14. Register of works 18-15. Appropriation and re-appropriation 18-16. Materials at site accounts 18-17. Capital works and repair works 18-18. Administrative approval and technical sanction 18-19. Measurement book (M.B.) 18-20. Muster roll 18-21. Completion report 18-22. Imprest 18-23. Daily report 18-24. Deposit works 18-25. Record of bills 18-26. Advance payment and secured advance payment 18-27. Piece-work system of payment 18-28. Inventory 18-29. Work-slip and work-abstract 18-30. Site order book 18-31. Methods of execution of work in P.W.D. 18-32. Selection of mode of execution of work in P.W.D. 18-33. Difference between department execution and contract system Questions 18 Chapter 19: CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING 19-1. General 19-2. Need for construction management 19-3. Scope of construction management 19-4. Factors affecting construction management 19-5. Methods for planning construction activities 19-6. Bar charts or Gantt charts 19-7. Network technique 19-8. Procedure for Critical Path Method (CPM) 19-8-1. Typical problems on CPM 19-8-2. Advantages of CPM 19-8-3. Limitations of CPM 19-8-4. Uses of CPM 19-8-5. Difficulties in implementation of the CPM 19-9. Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) 19-10. Time-grid diagram method 19-11. Mile–stone charts 19-12. Resources planning 19-13. Resource allocation 19-14. Resource levelling 19-15. Job layout of construction site 19-16. Storage of materials 19-17. Stock control 19-18. Stages of material management 19-19. Inventory control 19-20. Disposal of surplus materials Questions 19 PART I: valuation Chapter 20: Cost, price And Value 20-1. General 20-2. Real properties and personal properties 20-3. Differences between the real properties and personal properties 20-4. Valuation 20-5. Cost, price and value 20-6. Concept of the term value 20-7. Purposes of valuation 20-8. Different forms of value 20-9. Factors affecting changes in market value 20-10. Classification of the valuers 20-11. Role of the valuer 20-12. New horizons of valuation Questions 20 Chapter 21: Mortgage, freehold and leasehold properties 21-1. General 21-2. Types of interests 21-3. Freehold interests 21-4. Leasehold interests 21-5. Difference between freehold and leasehold property 21-6. Mortgage 21-7. Reverse mortgage 21-8. Typical problems Questions 21 Chapter 22: Outgoings and Net income 22-1. Definition 22-2. Usual types of outgoings 22-3. Typical problems 22-4. Gross income and net income Questions 22 Chapter 23: Easements 23-1. General 23-2. Definition 23-3. Essential characteristics of easements 23-4. Creation of easements 23-5. Extinguishment of easements 23-6. Easements and natural rights 23-7. Effect on valuation due to easement 23-8. Typical problems Questions 23 Chapter 24: Valuation of Licenced premises 24-1. General 24-2. General principle of valuation 24-3. Valuation of a cinema 24-4. Valuation of a hotel 24-5. Typical problems Questions 24 Chapter 25: Depreciation 25-1. Meaning of the term 25-2. Depreciation as cost in operation 25-3. Depreciation as decrease in worth 25-3-1. Physical conditions 25-3-2. Functional obsolescence 25-3-3. Economic obsolescence 25-4. Difference between depreciation and obsolescence 25-5. Methods for estimating cost depreciation 25-6. Cost of construction 25-7. Cost depreciation and value depreciation 25-8. Reproduction cost and replacement cost 25-9. Depreciation and depletion 25-10. Typical problems Questions 25 Chapter 26: Standard rent 26-1. General 26-2. Forms of rent 26-3. Objects of Rent Act 26-4. Meaning of standard rent 26-5. Exemptions from the Rent Act 26-6. Process of fixing standard rent 26-7. Methods of ascertaining standard rent 26-8. Important factors 26-9. Inheritance of tenancy right 26-10. Typical problems Questions 26 Chapter 27: Methods of Valuation 27-1. General 27-2. Methods of valuation for open lands 27-3. Methods of valuation for lands with buildings 27-3-1. Rental method 27-3-2. Direct comparisons of the capital value 27-3-3. Valuation by reference to profits 27-3-4. Valuation based on the cost or contractor’s method 27-3-5. Residual or development method 27-4. Typical problems Questions 27 Chapter 28: Miscellaneous topics 28-1. General 28-2. Amortization 28-3. Annuity 28-4. Capitalised value 28-5. Deferred or reversionary land value 28-6. Encumbrance factor 28-7. Year’s purchase Questions 28 Chapter 29: Valuation tables 29-1. General Appendix: practical questions Bibliography Index

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