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CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING

CED_9789385039300

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Length170 mm
Thickness21 mm
Height235 mm
Weight670 gm
AuthorRangwala
Pages516 + 20 = 536
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789385039300
SizeCrown
Edition3rd
Year 2017

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Civil_Engineering_Drawing

CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING[INCLUDING COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING]RangwalaEdition : 3rd Edition : 2017 ISBN : 9789385039300 Size : 170 mm × 235 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 516 + 20 = 536` 400.00ABOUT THE BOOKCivil Engineering Drawing is an inevitable subject in learning Civil Engineering and Architecture. This thoroughly revised, extensively enlarged and completely modified third edition presents plenty of new material by adding and updating its contents to enhancing and widening its coverage. Plenty of new drawings are added and all other drawings are redrawn with full details and in scale. The entire book is divided into two parts: Part I : Civil Engineering Drawing; Part II : Computer Aided Building Drawing. Three new chapters are added: (1) Earthquake Resistant Buildings; (2) Classification of Buildings; and (3) Computer Aided Building Drawing. Topics of Sciography are introduced in the chapter of Perspective Drawings and Sciography. The outline of the book is: PART I: CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING Chapter 01 : Introduction gives history evolution, development and order of architecture. Chapter 02 : Guidelines for preparing building drawings Chapter 03 : Various methods and types of drawings such as orthographic, axonometric drawings viz., isometric, dimetric, trimetric, oblique, etc. Chapter 04 : Submission and working drawings. Chapter 05 : Perspective drawings and sciography. Chapter 06 : Gives all aspects of principles of planning. Chapter 07 : Provides architectural compositions. Chapter 08 : Discuss all aspects of Building bye-laws. Chapter 09 : Introduce earthquake resistant buildings. Chapter 10 : Provides Classification of buildings. Chapter 11 : Planning of residential buildings. Chapter 12 : Planning of industrial structures. Chapter 13 : Planning of public buildings. Chapter 14 : Gives various important miscellaneous topics which are connected with the subject of civil engineering drawing, building planning and town planning. PART II: COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING Chapter 15 : This chapter gives introduction to computer aided drafting with many self-interactive and self-learning practice modules. It is hoped that the book will satisfy the needs of the students preparing for the Degree examinations in Civil Engineering and Architecture of almost all the Indian Universities, Diploma examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional Examinations. It should also be of an immense help to the practising Civil Engineers.CONTENTPart I : CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING 1 : INTRODUCTION 2 : GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING DRAWINGS 3 : METHODS OF DRAWINGS 4 : SUBMISSION AND WORKING DRAWINGS 5 : PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS AND SCIOGRAPHY 6 : PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING 7 : ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION 8 : BUILDING BYE-LAWS 9 : EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS 10 : CLASSIFICATION OF THE BUILDINGS 11 : PLANNING OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 12 : PLANNING OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES 13 : PLANNING OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS 14 : MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS Part II : COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING 15 : COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING Bibliography IndexCIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING Detailed ContentsPART I : CIVIL ENGINEERING DRAWING Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1. General 1-2. Evolution and development of architecture (1) Climate (4) Religion (2) Geology (5) Type of construction (3) Politics (1) Babylonians (2) Assyrians (3) Persians 1-3. Order of architecture 1-3-1. Doric order (1) Greek Doric (2) Roman Doric 1-3-2. Ionic order (1) Greek Ionic (2) Roman Ionic 1-3-3. Corinthian order (1) Greek Corinthian (2) Roman Corinthian 1-3-4. Tuscan order 1-3-5. Composite order 1-4. Greek and Roman styles of architecture (1) Greek architecture (2) Roman architecture 1-5. Architecture in India (1) Climate (3) Religion (2) Geology QUESTIONS 1 Chapter 2 GUIDELINES FOR BUILDING DRAWINGS 2-1. General 2-2. Conventions 2-3. Drawing instruments (1) Drawing compass (6) Set-squares (2) Drawing board (7) Scales (3) T-square (8) Tracing cloth (4) Drawing paper (9) Miscellaneous (5) French curves 2-4. Title block (1) Architect name (4) Job title (2) Date (5) Scale (3) Drawing title (6) Space for staff 2-5. Scales 2-6. Line work 2-7. Lettering (1) Clear of lines (5) Reading (2) Designation (6) Sizes (3) Main requirements (7) Types (4) Photographic reproduction (8) Underlining 2-8. Conventional signs and Symbols 2-9. Abbreviations used in building drawing 2-10. Tracing 2-11. Blue-prints 2-12. Ammonia-prints 2-13. Computer output devices (1) Pen Plotter (3) Laser printers (2) Ink-jet Printers/Plotters QUESTIONS 2 Chapter 3 METHODS OF DRAWINGS 3-1. General 3-2. Types of drawings (1) Orthographic drawings (2) Pictorial drawings 3-3. Axonometric drawing (1) Isometric drawing (3) Trimetric drawing (2) Dimetric drawing 3-4. Oblique drawing 3-5. Perspective drawing 3-6. Architectural drawings 3-7. Isometric drawings 3-7.1. Isometric length for isometric projections 3-7.2. Isometric scale 3-7-3. Isometric axes, lines and planes 3-7-4. To draw isometric view of a circle (isocircle) 3-7-5. Illustrative examples of isometric drawings 3-7-6. Illustrative problems on isometric drawings QUESTIONS 3 Chapter 4 SUBMISSION AND WORKING DRAWINGS 4-1. General 4-2. Requirements of a good drawing 4-3. Sketches 4-4. Views and details necessary for a drawing (1) Plan (3) Section (2) Elevation 4-5. Site plan 4-6. Layout plan and key or location plan (1) Layout Plan (2) Key plan or location plan 4-7. Composition of submission drawing 4-8. Engineering drawing and architectural drawing 4-9. Teaching civil engineering drawing (1) Sketching (3) Measured drawing (2) Tracing (4) Development of line plan 4-10. Presentation drawings (1) Axonometric view of plan and perspective (2) Floor plan and rendered elevation (3) Perspective drawing with elevations 4-11. Differences between submission drawing and working drawing QUESTIONS 4 Chapter 5 PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS AND SCIOGRAPHY PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS 5-1. Introduction — Perspective drawings 5-2. Principle of perspective projection 5-3. History of perspective drawings 5-4. Necessity of perspective drawings (1) Architect or planner (2) Client or owner of property 5-5. Characteristics of perspective 5-6. Elements of perspective projection (1) Ground Plane (GP) (6) Horizon Line (HL) (2) Station point (SP) or Eye (7) Axis of Vision (AV) Level Point or Perpendicular Axis (3) Picture Plane (PP) (8) Centre of Vision (CV) (4) Horizontal Plane (HP) (9) Central Plane (CP) (5) Ground Line (GL) (10) Visual Rays (VR) 5-7. Station point (sp) position 5-8. Picture plane (PP) 5-9. Vanishing point (VP) 5-10. Angle of vision 5-11. Cone of vision 5-12. Rules of perspective 5-13. Types of perspective (1) Parallel Perspective or One Point Perspective (2) Two Point Perspective or Angular Perspective (3) Three Point Perspective or Oblique Perspective 5-14. Line of heights (H) or measuring line 5-15. Problems on one point perspective 5-16. Problems on two point perspective 5-17. Problems on three point perspective 5-18. Limitation of perspective (1) Graphical process (4) Photography (2) Human eye (5) Selection of view (3) Linear perspective SCIOGRAPHY 5-19. Introduction — Sciography 5-20. Shade 5-21. Shadow 5-22. Shape of shadow 5-23. Principles of shadow casting 5-24. Purpose of shades and shadow 5-25. Source of light (1) Light sources according to colour groups (2) Light sources according to types of lamps 5-26. Artificial light 5-27. Construction of shadow for cube 5-28. Construction of shadow for cylinder 5-29. Construction of shadow for perspective 5-30. Construction of shadow for hut 5-31. Colour schemes (1) General (2) Colour categories (3) Neutral colours and colour schemes (4) Categories of colour schemes QUESTIONS 5 Chapter 6 PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING 6-1. General 6-2. Modern architecture 6-3. Main considerations of architectural design 6-3-1. Bye-laws of the locality 6-3-2. Climate and its effects (1) Cyclonic systems (4) Nearness of water (2) Latitude (5) Ocean currents (3) Mountains (6) Winds Indian seasons (1) Hot-dry (2) Hot-wet 6-3-3. Materials and methods of construction 6-3.4. People and their requirements 6-4. Orientation (1) Cross ventilation (5) Roof (2) Damp-proof course (6) Treatment of ground (3) Placing of walls (7) Wind direction (4) Projections 6-5. Essential factors of planning (1) Aspect (7) Grouping (2) Circulation (8) Privacy (3) Economy (9) Prospect (4) Elegance (10) Roominess (5) Flexibility (11) Sanitation (6) Furniture requirements QUESTION 6 Chapter 7 ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION 7-1. General 7-2. Principles of composition (1) Contrast (4) Scales (2) Mass composition (5) Unity (3) Proportion 7-3. Positive and negative elements 7-4. Accentuation and rhythm 7-5. Character (1) Functional character (3) Traditional character (2) Personal character 7-6. Functional treatment 7-7. Sun-shading devices (1) Awnings (3) Overhangs (2) Louvres (4) Screens QUESTIONS 7 Chapter 8 BUILDING BYE-LAWS 8-1. General (1) Standard (4) Bye-law (2) Norm (5) Law (3) Regulation 8-2. Objects of bye-laws 8-3. Importance of bye-laws (1) Consultation with superior authority (2) Consultation with subordinate authority (3) Consultation with interested groups 8-4. Functions of a local authority (1) Building bye-laws (2) Powers to architects 8-5. Responsibility of owner (1) Surveyor (4) Structural designer (2) Architect (5) Clerk of works (3) Engineer 8-6. Applicability of bye-laws (1) Additions and alterations to a building (2) New construction (3) Requirement of open space 8-7. Principles underlying building bye-laws 8-8. Set-back or building line 8-9. Light plane 8-10. Floor space index 8-11. Off-street parking 8-12. Fire protection (1) Lift and stair (3) Special provisions (2) Water supply 8-13. Minimum plot sizes 8-14. Thickness of walls 8-15. Plinth 8-16. Cellar 8-17. Height of floors 8-18. Loft 8-19. Stairs, lifts, lobbies and corridor 8-20. Sanitary accommodation (1) Office and public buildings (2) Industrial buildings and warehouses (3) Educational buildings (4) Residential building or residential tenements 8-21. Ventilation (1) Ventilation of rooms (2) Factories and building of the warehouses (3) Ventilation of stair-cases (4) Windows in stair-case bay (5) Ventilation from the top and skylight etc. 8-22. Sills of openings 8-23. Stairway or staircase (1) Width (5) Head room (2) Flight (6) Floor indicator (3) Risers (7) Hand Rail (4) Treads (8) Pitch 8-24. Ramps (1) Ramps for pedestrians (2) Ramps for handicapped people (3) Ramps for basement or storied parking 8-25. Roofs 8-26. Parapets and terraces 8-27. Mosquito-proof water tank 8-28. Refuse area/disposal of solid waste (1) For residential buildings (2) For nonresidential buildings (3) For hospitals, hotels, restaurants 8-29. Discharge of rain water 8-30. Provision of letter box 8-31. Margins and maximum built-up area (1) Residential and commercial use (2) Industrial use 8-32. Permissible built up area in margin 8-33. Projections in margin 8-34. Margin from common plot 8-35. Open space 8-36. Definitions of Some terms (1) Auditorium (23) Mezzanine floor (2) Basement or cellar (24) Neighbourhood centre (3) Building unit and civic centre (4) Commercial building (25) Natural hazard prone areas (5) Consolidated open plot (26) Occupancy or use (C.O.P) (27) Open space (6) Domestic building (28) Owner (7) Dwelling house (29) Office building (8) Dwelling unit (30) Ownership tenement flats (9) Height of building (31) Parapet (10) Gamtal (32) Parking space (11) Garage — private (33) Partition (12) Garage — public (34) Permission (13) Habitable room (35) Plinth (14) Height of a room (36) Plinth area (15) Home occupation (37) Pent house (16) Hazardous material (38) Porch or portico (17) Hut (39) Public and semi-public (18) Industrial building building (19) Lift (40) Public purpose (20) Loft (41) Road or street (21) Low-rise and high-rise (42) Road-level or street-level buildings or grade (22) Margin (43) Road line or street line (44) Road width (55) Theatre and cinema (45) Row houses (56) Water-closet (W.C.) (46) Semi-detached building (57) Water course (47) Service road (58) Water course, major (48) Shopping centre (59) Water tanks or talav (49) Skip floor or pond or lake (50) Smoke-stop door (60) Warehouse or godown (51) Stair cover (61) Window (52) Storey (62) Width of street (53) Tenement (54) Tenement buildings and flats 8-37. Building bye-laws for gamtal area (1) Minimum area (5) Open spaces (2) Access to buildings (6) Height of buildings (3) Set back (7) Projections on set (4) Margins backs 8-38. Bye-laws for cinemas, theatres, multiplex, meeting halls, lecture halls, town halls, auditorium, etc. (1) Air-condition (10) Projection room (2) Aisles (passages) (11) Rewinding room (3) Balcony (12) Sanitary (4) Booking office and accommodations manager’s room (13) Screen (5) Doors (14) Seats (6) Front open space (15) Size of plot (7) Foyer and auditorium (16) Stairs (8) Location (17) Ventilation (9) Parking (18) Water-room and snack bars 8-39. Bye-laws for drive-in cinemas (1) Boundaries (6) Projection room (2) Entrance and exit (7) Rows of motor cars (3) Frontage (8) Screen (4) Loud speaker poles (9) Size of picture (5) Passage (10) Width of bay 8-40. Bye-laws for gasoline filling stations and gasoline filling cum service station (1) Entrance and exit (3) Parking consideration (4) Size (2) Location (5) Traffic requirements QUESTIONS 8 Chapter 9 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS 9-1. Earthquake 9-2. Earthquake terminology (1) Focus or hypocenter (4) Epicentral distance (2) Epicenter (5) Aftershocks (3) Focal depth (6) Foreshocks 9-3. Earthquake Resistant Buildings 9-4. Earthquake design philosophy 9-5. Design concept of earthquake resistant buildings 9-6. Earthquake resistant buildings by planning and design approach (1) Conventional approach (2) Basic approach 9-7. Construction techniques for earthquake resistant buildings (1) Avoid hollow plinth (6) Horizontal bands Design improvement (7) Seismic dampers (2) Base isolation (8) Shear walls (3) Beam-column junctions (9) Short column effect (4) Brick masonry buildings (10) Vertical reinforcement (5) Construction materials QUESTIONS 9 Chapter 10 CLASSIFICATION OF THE BUILDINGS 10-1. General (1) Assembly buildings (8) Recreation buildings (2) Business buildings (9) Residential buildings (3) Educational buildings (10) Storage buildings (4) Hazardous buildings (11) Transportation (5) Health buildings buildings (6) Industrial buildings (12) Worship buildings (7) Institutional buildings 10-2. Types of buildings 10-2-1. Group A: Residential buildings (1) Sub-group A-1: Lodging or rooming houses (2) Sub-group A-2: One or two family private dwellings (3) Sub-group A-3: Dormitories (4) Sub-group A-4: Apartment houses (Flats) (5) Sub-group A-5: Hotels 10-2-2. Group B: Educational buildings 10-2-3. Group C: Institutional buildings (1) Sub-group C-1: Hospitals and Sanitaria (2) Sub-group C-2: Custodial Institutions (3) Sub-group C-3: Penal Institutions 10-2-4. Group D: Assembly buildings 10-2-5. Group E: Business buildings 10-2-6. Group F: Mercantile buildings 10-2-7. Group G: Industrial buildings 10-2-8. Group H: Storage buildings 10-2-9. Group I: Hazardous buildings 10-3. Basic functional requirements of a building (1) Comfort and convenience (8) Moisture or damp (2) Dimensional stability prevention (3) Durability (9) Security against (4) Economy burglary (5) Fire Protection (10) Sound insulation (6) Heat or thermal insulation (11) Strength and stability (7) Light and ventilation (12) Termite Control Important Building Components (1) Foundation (3) Superstructure (2) Plinth QUESTIONS 10 Chapter 11 PLANNING OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 11-1. General 11-2. Planning of residential buildings (1) Living area (3) Service area (2) Sleeping area 11-3. Furniture units and its arrangement 11-4. Requirements of modern residential units 11-4-1. Bath and/or w.c. (1) Door and it position (5) Shower and water tap (2) Floor slope position (3) Drain trap placement (6) Aspect, location and (4) Fixtures placement ventilation position 11-4-2. Bedroom 11-4-3. Children room 11-4-4. Dining room 11-4-5. Drawing room 11-4-6. Garage 11-4-7. Kitchen 11-4-8. Library or Study room 11-4-9. Living room 11-4-10. Music or recreation room 11-4-11. Open chowk and passages (1) Open chowk (2) Passages 11-4-12. Rooms for servants 11-4-13. Spacious dressing rooms 11-4-14. Stair 11-4-15. Store 11-4-16. Swimming pool 11-4-17. Verandah 11-5. Types of residential buildings 11-5-1. Rural house (1) Typical Rural house (2) Rural row house 11-5-2. Detached buildings or bungalows (1) Single storeyed residential bungalow (2) Two storeyed residential bungalow (3) A small modern residential bungalow having ground floor, first floor and second floor (4) A modern residential bungalow with basement, ground floor, mezzanine floor, first floor and partly second floor 11-5-3. Semi-detached buildings (1) Single storeyed semi-detached building (2) Two storeyed semi-detached buildings (3) Two storeyed modern semi-detached buildings 11-5-4. Flats or apartments (1) Two BHK (Bedroom-Hall-Kitchen fla (2) Three BHK (Bedroom-Hall-Kitchen flat (3) Duplex flat 11-5-5. Row houses (1) A row house scheme for middle income group (MIG) (2) A row house scheme in which ground floor and first floor are occupied by different families (3) A modern row house QUESTIONS 11 Chapter 12 PLANNING OF INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES 12-1. General (1) Factory buildings or engineering workshops (2) Godown and warehouses (3) Welfare buildings 12-2. Planning aspects (1) Functional aspect (5) Number of floors (2) Lighting (6) Site conditions (3) Materials of construction (7) Ventilation (4) Mechanical layout 12-3. Requirements of big industrial units (1) Canteen (6) Mechanical aid (2) Cloak-room (7) Office (3) Drinking water (8) Sanitary block (4) Entrance (9) Storage (5) Loading and unloading platforms 12-4. Industrial structures 12-5. Industrial townships or estates (1) Layout (4) Site (2) Management (5) Size (3) Service and amenities QUESTIONS 12 Chapter 13 PLANNING OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS 13-1. General (1) Construction details (3) Structural details (2) Planning details 13-2. Types of public buildings (1) Assembly buildings (5) Institutional buildings (2) Business buildings (6) Recreation buildings (3) Educational buildings (7) Transportation buildings (4) Health buildings (8) Worship buildings 13-3. Bank (1) Banking space (5) Sanitary units (2) Public space (6) Staff facilities (3) Safe deposit vaults (7) Computer system and (4) Store and record room UPS room 13-4. Bus station (1) Canteen and stalls (3) Parking of buses (2) Offices and (4) Repairing facilities administrative units (5) Waiting halls (1) General facilities (2) Facilities for the passengers (3) Facilities for bus station staff and drivers-conductors (4) Bus depot 13-5. Club house (1) Internal amenities (2) External amenities 13-6. Commercial centre or office building (1) Location (4) Parking (2) Markets (5) Stores (3) Offices 13-7. Hospital (1) Administrative block (6) Parking facilities (2) Infectious diseases (7) Pathology department (3) Medical college (8) Radiology department (4) Mortuary (9) Staff quarters (5) Out-patient department (10) Wards (O.P.D.) 13-8. Hostel (1) Hostels for students (2) Hostels for tourists or general public or working men/women 13-9. Hotel (1) Bed rooms (4) Parking facilities (2) Ground floor (5) Various other amenities (3) Lift 13-10. Library (1) Administrative department (4) Reading room (2) Entrance (5) Stack room (3) Location (6) Other necessaries 13-11. Post office (1) Public space (4) Telephone booth (2) Working space (5) Residential (3) Sorting room accommodation 13-12. School building (1) Class rooms (3) Location (2) Group of activities (4) Other amenities 13-13. Temple 13-14. Theatre (1) Auditorium (6) Projection room (2) Box office (7) Restaurant (3) Foyers and lobbies (8) Sanitary units (4) Manager’s room (9) Stage (5) Parking facilities 13-15. Town hall QUESTION 13 Chapter 14 MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 14-1. General 14-2. Agencies of building trade (1) Responsibilities of the architect or engineer (2) Responsibilities of the contractor (3) Responsibilities of the owner 14-3. Boulevards 14-4. External finishes (1) Sand-faced finish (4) Smooth-cast finish (2) Pebble-dash or (5) Depeter finish dry-dash finish (3) Rough-cast finish (6) Scrapped finish 14-5. House drainage 14-6. Landscape architecture (1) General (2) Objects or purposes of landscape architecture (3) Salient features of landscape architecture (4) Advantages of landscaping (5) Disadvantages of landscaping 14-7. Master plan or development plan of a town (1) General (2) Objects of master plan or development plan (3) Necessity of master plan or development plan (4) Data to be collected (5) Drawings to be prepared (6) Features of development plan (7) Planning standards 14-8. Neighbourhood planning (1) General (4) Features of (2) Principles of planning neighbourhood unit (3) Importance 14-9. Parks (1) General (4) Park systems (2) Types of recreation (5) Park design (3) Location of urban green spaces 14-10. Parkways 14-11. Playgrounds 14-12. Pipes for conveyance of water (1) Asbestos cement pipes (6) Lead pipes (2) Cast-iron pipes (7) Plastic pipes (3) Cement concrete pipes (8) Steel pipes (4) Copper pipes (9) Wood pipes (5) Galvanized iron pipes (10) Wrought-iron pipes 14-13. R.C.C. Floors 14-14. Requirements of a good stair (1) Design of layout (3) Materials and (2) Treads and risers workmanship (4) Width (8) Single step (5) Pitch (9) Winders (6) Headroom (10) Handrail (7) Flight (11) Location 14-15. Sanitary fittings (1) Bath tubs (5) Urinals (2) Drinking fountains (6) Wash basin (3) Flushing cisterns (7) Water closets (4) Sinks 14-16. Sheets for pitched roof coverings (1) Asbestos cement sheets (2) Galvanized iron sheets 14-17. Slums (1) General (6) Slum clearance and (2) Causes of slums rehousing (3) Characteristics of slums (7) Prevention of slum (4) Effects of slums formation (5) Slum clearance 14-18. Storage of water (1) Underground water storage tanks (2) Overhead water storage tanks 14-19. Strong-room or vault construction (1) Walls, floor and ceiling (2) Grills (3) Doors and windows 14-20. Town planning (1) General (2) Objects of town planning (3) Economic justification for town plannin (4) Principles of town planning (5) Necessity of town planning (6) Origin of towns 14-20-1. Growth of towns Reasons to stay close to urban areas 14-20-2. Growth of towns according to origin (1) Natural growth (2) Planned growth 14-20-3. Growth of towns according to direction (1) Horizontal growt (2) Vertical growth 14-20-4. Forms of planning (1) Local planning (4) National planning (2) Country planning (5) International planning (3) Regional planning 14-20-5. Planning of a modern town 14-20-6. Town planning in ancient India (1) Ayodhya (3) Takshasila (2) Patliputra 14-21. Types of floorings 14-21-1. Factors affecting choice of flooring material (1) Appearance (7) Fire resistance (2) Cleaning (8) Hardness (3) Comfort (9) Maintenance (4) Cost (10) Noise (5) Damp resistance (11) Slipperiness (6) Durability 14-21-2. Materials used for flooring (1) Asphalt (9) Moorum (2) Brick (10) Mud (3) Concrete (11) Plastic (4) Cork (12) Rubber (5) Glass (13) Stone (6) Linoleum (14) Terrazzo (7) Magnesite (15) Tile (8) Marble (16) Timber 14-22. Water requirements 14-23. Zoning (1) Danger from fire (2) Future development (3) General amenities (4) Health of community (5) Population distribution (6) Public utility services QUESTIONS 14 PART II : COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING Chapter 15 COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING 15-1. Introduction 15-2. Computer 15-2-1. Organisation of a computer 15-3. Computer hardware for cad 15-3-1. Central Processing Unit (CPU) (1) Mother Board (4) Processor (2) Hard disk (5) Graphics card (3) RAM (Random Access (6) LAN card Memory (7) Bios chip 15-3-2. Monitor or visual display unit (VDU) 15-3-3. Input devices (1) Keyboard (5) Joystick (2) Keypad (6) Tablet (3) Digitizer (7) Touchscreen (4) Trackball 15-3-4. Output devices (1) Printers (2) Plotters (3) External/Removable Storage device (4) Tape (5) Computer output microfilm (6) CRT display with light pen 15-3-5. Mouse 15-4. CAD software Features of CAD softwares (1) Modelling and Drafting (4) Modularity (2) Ease of use (5) Low maintenance cost (3) Flexibility 15-5. Computer aided drafting 15-6. AutoCAD 15-6-1. Hardware required for AutoCAD 2015/2016 15-6-2. Classic and ribbon screen layout of AutoCAD 2015/2016 15-6-3. Function keys 15-6-4. Drawing entities (1) Setting limits of drawing area (2) Draw commands (3) Zoom command (4) Object snap (5) Object Selection Method (6) Modify commands (7) File handling commands (8) Text commands (9) Symbol library (block, wblock and insert) 15-7. Two dimensional drawings 15-8. 3D Solid Modelling 15-8-1. Standard 3D shapes based solids 15-8-2. Profile based solids 15-9. Commands to generate profile based 3D solids (1) Vpoint command (2) Ucs Command (3) Shademode (4) Region command (5) Extrude command (6) Revolve command (7) Boolean operations (8) 3darray command (9) Filletedge (10) Chamferedge (11) Rotate3d command (12) Mirror3d command (13) Slice command (14) Loft command (15) Sweep command (16) Shell option of solidedit command 15-10. Three dimensional drawings QUESTIONS 15 Bibliography Index

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