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SURVEYING AND LEVELLING

SL_9789380358949

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Length170 mm
Thickness21 mm
Height240 mm
Weight800
AuthorRangwala
Pages664 + 16 = 680
BindingPaperback
ISBN9789380358949
SizeCrown
Edition7th
Year 2014

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Surveying_&_Levelling

SURVEYING AND LEVELLINGRangwalaEdition : 7th Edition : 2014 ISBN : 9789380358949 Size : 170 mm × 240 mm Binding : Paperback Pages : 664 + 16 = 680` 300.00ABOUT THE BOOKThis text-book provides an up-to-date knowledge of the basic principles of Surveying and Levelling. The subject matter is canvassed along with theory, variety of examples, various types of survey techniques; survey instruments used in the field; measurement of distances, both vertical and horizontal; the direction of lines or angles between the lines, where as various levelling instruments, principles, techniques, methods applied in levelling are given in this text book. The subject matter is expressed in a simple language and practical manner. The treatment is clear, methodical as well as interesting and easy to follow. The entire subject matter is systematically arranged in the chapters like: Introduction, Scales, Linear Measurements of Distances , Chain Surveying and Ranging, Cross Staff Chain Surveying and Instruments, Compass Survey, Levelling, Contouring, Plane Table Survey, Computation of Areas, Computation of Volumes, Minor Instruments, Theodolite, Permanent Adjustments of Levels, Tacheometric Surveying, Circular Curves, Transition Curves, Vertical Curves, Field Astronomy, Theory of Errors, Setting Out Works, Hydrographic Surveying, Photographic Surveying, Modern Techniques of Surveying. Appendix I contains Question Bank and Solved Problems. Total 215 theory as well as numerical questions mostly asked in viva and written examination of G.T.U. and other universities are included. Appendix II contains 181 Multiple Choice Questions and Appendix II showing Abbreviated Terms used in this book are added at the end of the book. The book now contains: * 404 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches * 218 Solved problems * 215 Theory as well as numerical questions * 66 Useful tables * 480 Questions at the ends of chapters. The book should prove to be extremely useful to the Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove of interest to the practising professionals.CONTENTThis text-book provides an up-to-date knowledge of the basic principles of Surveying and Levelling. The subject matter is canvassed along with theory, variety of examples, various types of survey techniques; survey instruments used in the field; measurement of distances, both vertical and horizontal; the direction of lines or angles between the lines, where as various levelling instruments, principles, techniques, methods applied in levelling are given in this text book. The subject matter is expressed in a simple language and practical manner. The treatment is clear, methodical as well as interesting and easy to follow. The entire subject matter is systematically arranged in the chapters like: Introduction, Scales, Linear Measurements of Distances , Chain Surveying and Ranging, Cross Staff Chain Surveying and Instruments, Compass Survey, Levelling, Contouring, Plane Table Survey, Computation of Areas, Computation of Volumes, Minor Instruments, Theodolite, Permanent Adjustments of Levels, Tacheometric Surveying, Circular Curves, Transition Curves, Vertical Curves, Field Astronomy, Theory of Errors, Setting Out Works, Hydrographic Surveying, Photographic Surveying, Modern Techniques of Surveying. Appendix I contains Question Bank and Solved Problems. Total 215 theory as well as numerical questions mostly asked in viva and written examination of G.T.U. and other universities are included. Appendix II contains 181 Multiple Choice Questions and Appendix II showing Abbreviated Terms used in this book are added at the end of the book. The book now contains: * 404 Self-explanatory and neatly drawn sketches * 218 Solved problems * 215 Theory as well as numerical questions * 66 Useful tables * 480 Questions at the ends of chapters. The book should prove to be extremely useful to the Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove of interest to the practising professionals.SURVEYING AND LEVELLING Detailed ContentsChapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1. General 1-2. Object of survey 1-3. Purposes of survey 1-4. Classification of surveys 1-4-1. Engineering surveys 1-4-2. Geodetic surveys 1-4-3. Plane surveys 1-4-4. Miscellaneous surveys 1-5. Principles of surveying 1-6. Uses of survey 1-7. Measurements and their units 1-8. Roll of Surveyor 1-9. Precision and accuracy in surveying QUESTIONS 1 Chapter 2 SCALES 2-1. General 2-2. Requirements of a scale 2-3. Classification of scales 2-3-1. Plain scale 2-3-2. Diagonal scale 2-3-3. Vernier scale 2-3-4. Miscellaneous scales 2-4. Plans and maps 2-5. Scale for survey maps and plans 2-6. Correction due to use of wrong scale QUESTIONS 2 Chapter 3 LINEAR MEASUREMENTS OF DISTANCES 3-1. General 3-2. Direct methods of linear measurements 3-2-1. Direct methods without instruments 3-2-2. Direct methods with instruments 3-3. Types of chains 3-4. Testing and adjusting of chain 3-5. Instruments for marking stations 3-6. Types of tapes 3-7. Tape corrections QUESTIONS Chapter 4 CHAIN SURVEYING AND RANGING 4-1. General 4-2. Principle of chain survey 4-3. Survey stations 4-4. Survey lines 4-5. Offsets 4-6. Ranging 4-7. Types of ranging 4-7-1. Direct ranging 4-7-2. Indirect ranging 4-8. Chaining on plain ground 4-9. Points to be observed during chaining 4-10. Chaining on sloping ground 4-10-1. Direct method of chaining 4-10-2. Indirect method of chaining 4-11. Errors in ordinary chaining 4-11-1. Compensating errors 4-11-2. Cumulative errors 4-12. Degree of accuracy in chaining work 4-13. Field book 4-14. Instruments required in chain survey 4-15. Procedure for carrying out chain survey 4-16. Plotting work with conventional signs QUESTIONS 4 Chapter 5 CROSS STAFF CHAIN SURVEYING AND INSTRUMENTS 5-1. General 5-2. Purpose 5-3. Basic principle 5-4. Instruments for setting out perpendiculars 5-4-1. Chain or tape 5-4-2. Cross-staff 5-4-3. Optical square 5-5. Cross-staff survey 5-6. Obstacles in chaining 5-6-1. Chaining free but vision obstructed 5-6-2. Chaining obstructed but vision free 5-6-3. Chaining and vision both obstructed QUESTIONS 5 Chapter 6 COMPASS SURVEY 6-1. General 6-2. Traversing and triangulation 6-3. Methods of measuring direction 6-4. Magnetic needle 6-5. Pivot 6-6. Compass 6-7. Tripods 6-8. Bearings 6-9. Magnetic declination 6-10. Classification of declination 6-11. Methods of designation 6-12. Fore bearing and back bearing 6-13. Included angles from bearings 6-14. Local attraction 6-15. Chain and compass survey 6-16. Plotting of compass survey 6-17. Closing error 6-18. Errors in compass survey 6-19. Precautions in using the compass 6-20. Accuracy and precision 6-21. Limits of precision QUESTIONS 6 Chapter 7 LEVELLING 7-1. General 7-2. Definitions of some common terms in levelling 7-3. Methods of levelling 7-3-1. Direct levelling 7-3-2. Indirect levelling 7-4. Principles of levelling 7-5. Instruments for levelling 7-6. Types of levels 7-7. Levelling staff 7-8. Essential parts of a level 7-9. Parallax and focussing 7-10. Defects of a single lens 7-11. Parts of a telescope 7-12. Optical characteristics of telescope 7-13. Accessories to a level 7-14. Bench marks 7-15. Temporary adjustments of levels 7-16. Entering the staff readings 7-17. Reduction of levels 7-18. Difficulties in levelling 7-19. Curvature and refraction 7-20. Errors in levelling 7-21. Precision of levelling QUESTIONS 7 Chapter 8 CONTOURING 8-1. General 8-2. Contour lines 8-3. Contour interval 8-4. Horizontal equivalent 8-5. Characteristics of contours 8-6. Location of contours 8-7. Interpolation of contours 8-8. Contour drawing 8-9. Contour gradient 8-10. Uses of contours QUESTIONS 8 Chapter 9 PLANE TABLE SURVEY 9-1. General 9-2. Instruments required for plane table survey 9-3. Accessories required for plane table survey 9-4. Temporary adjustments of plane table 9-5. Methods of plane table survey 9-6. Two-point and three-point problems 9-6-1. Two-point problem 9-6-2. Three-point problem 9-7. Errors in plane table survey 9-8. Advantages of plane table survey 9-9. Disadvantages of plane table survey QUESTIONS 9 Chapter 10 COMPUTATION OF AREAS 10-1. General 10-2. Methods for the computation of areas 10-3. Geometrical figures 10-4. Measuring grids 10-5. Ordinates 10-6. Co-ordinates 10-7. Planimeter 10-8. Method of using a planimeter 10-9. Zero circle QUESTIONS 10 Chapter 11 COMPUTATION OF VOLUMES 11-1. General 11-2. Methods for computation of volumes 11-2-1. Cross-sections 11-2-2. Spot levels 11-2-3. Study of contour plan 11-3. Prismoidal correction 11-4. Curvature correction for volumes QUESTIONS 11 Chapter 12 MINOR INSTRUMENTS 12-1. General 12-2. Abney level 12-2-1. Essential parts of abney level 12-2-2. Working of abney level 12-2-3. Testing of abney level 12-3. Box sextant 12-3-1. Essential parts of box sextant 12-3-2. Principle of box sextant 12-3-3. Working of box sextant 12-3-4. Optical requirements and adjustments of box sextant 12-4. Ceylon ghat tracer 12-4-1. Essential parts of ghat tracer 12-4-2. Working of ghat tracer 12-5. De Lisle’s clinometer 12-5-1. Essential parts of De Lisle’s clinometer 12-5-2. Working of De Lisle’s clinometer 12-6. Eidograph 12-7. Foot-rule clinometer 12-7-1. Working of foot-rule clinometer 12-8. Hand level 12-8-1. Working of hand level 12-8-2. Adjustment of the hand level 12-9. Indian pattern clinometer 12-9-1. Essential parts of Indian pattern clinometer: 12-9-2. Working of Indian pattern clinometer 12-9-3. Adjustment of Indian pattern clinometer 12-10. Pantagraph 12-11. Proportional compass 12-12. Watkin’s mirror clinometer QUESTIONS 12 Chapter 13 THEODOLITE 13-1 General 13-2 Essential parts of a transit theodolite 13-3 Definitions and terms used for theodolite work 13-4. Micrometer theodolites 13-5. Temporary adjustments of theodolite 13-6. Measurement of horizontal angles 13-7. Measurement of vertical angles 13-8. Miscellaneous operations with theodolite 13-9. Theodolite traverse 13-10. Locating details in theodolite traverse 13-11. Degree of accuracy in theodolite traversing 13-12. Plotting of theodolite traverse 13-13. Closing error 13-14. Angular error 13-15. Adjustment of bearings 13-16. Balancing the traverse 13-17. Traverse table 13-18. Errors in theodolite work 13-19. Fundamental lines and desired relations 13-20. Permanent adjustments of theodolite 13-21. Uses of theodolite 13-22. Typical problems on theodolite 13-23. Modern theodolites QUESTIONS 13 Chapter 14 PERMANENT ADJUSTMENTS OF LEVELS 14-1. General 14-2. Fundamental axes of the levelling instruments 14-3. Principle of reversibility 14-4. Precautions to be taken during the permanent adjustments 14-5. Adjustments of dumpy level 14-6. Adjustments of Y-level 14-7. Adjustments of Cooke’s reversible level 14-8. Adjustments of Cushing’s level 14-9. Adjustments of tilting level QUESTIONS 14 Chapter 15 TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING 15-1. General 15-2. Instruments 15-3. Uses of tacheometry 15-4. Systems of tacheometric measurements 15-5. Stadia method 15-6. Subtense method 15-7. Tangential method QUESTIONS 15 Chapter 16 CIRCULAR CURVES 16-1. General 16-2. Classification of circular curves 16-3. Simple curves 16-4. Elements of simple curve 16-5. Location of tangents 16-6. Location of tangent points 16-7. Peg Interval 16-8. Normal chords and sub-chords 16-9. Setting out simple curves 16-9-1. Linear methods 16-9-2. Angular methods 16-10. Special problems in simple curves 16-11. Compound curves 16-12. Setting out compound curves 16-13. Reverse or serpentine curves QUESTIONS 16 Chapter 17 TRANSITION CURVES 17-1. General 17-2. Requirements of transition curve 17-3. Composite curve 17-4. Super-elevation 17-5. Centrifugal ratio 17-6. Length of transition curve 17-7. Ideal transition curve 17-8. Cartesian co-ordinates of the points 17-9. Calculation of deflection angles 17-10. Modifications of ideal transition curve 17-11. Characteristics of a transition curve 17-12. Lemniscate transition curve 17-13. Comparison of transition curves QUESTIONS 17 Chapter 18 VERTICAL CURVES 18-1. General 18-2. Grade or gradient 18-3. Rate of change of gradient 18-4. Types of vertical curves 18-5. Equation of vertical curve 18-6. Length of vertical curve 18-7. Sight distance of vertical curve at summit 18-8. Sight distance of vertical curve at sag 18-9. Vertical curve passing through a fixed point 18-10. Setting out vertical curves 18-11. Typical problems on vertical curves QUESTIONS 18 Chapter 19 FIELD ASTRONOMY 19-1. General 19-2. Some astronomical terms 19-3. Terrestrial latitude and longitude 19-4. Parallel of latitude 19-5. Nautical mile 19-6. Spherical trigonometry 19-7. Spherical triangle 19-8. Some useful data 19-9. Astronomical triangle 19-10. Star at elongation 19-11. Star at prime vertical 19-12. Star at culmination or transit 19-13. Circumpolar stars 19-14. Star at horizon 19-15. Relationships between co-ordinates 19-16. Time QUESTIONS 19 Chapter 20 THEORY OF ERRORS 20-1. General 20-2. Accuracy and precision 20-3. Types of errors 20-4. Some definitions 20-5. Laws of accidental errors 20-6. Probability curve 20-7. Most probable value 20-8. Average error and maximum error 20-9. Mean square error 20-10. Method of least squares 20-11. Laws of weights 20-12. Rules for giving weights to the field observations 20-13. Distribution of error to the field observations QUESTIONS 20 Chapter 21 SETTING OUT WORKS 21-1. General 21-2. General considerations 21-3. Control stations 21-4. Horizontal control 21-5. Vertical control 21-6. Setting out of structure 21-7. Setting out of important structures QUESTIONS 21 Chapter 22 HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING 22-1. General 22-2. Requirements of hydrographic survey 22-3. Shore line survey 22-4. Soundings 22-5. Location of soundings 22-6. Reduction of soundings 22-7. Tides 22-8. Tide gauges QUESTIONS 22 Chapter 23 PHOTOGRAPHIC SURVEYING 23-1. General 23-2. Classification of photogrammetry 23-3. Application of photogrammetry 23-4. Mosaics QUESTIONS 23 Chapter 24 MODERN TECHNIQUES OF SURVEYING 24-1. General 24-2. Electronic distance measurement instruments 24-3. Global positioning system 24-4. Geographic information system 24-5. Remote sensing QUESTIONS 24 Appendix I QUESTION BANK AND SOLVED PROBLEMS Appendix II MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Appendix III ABBREVIATED TERMS

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